Though surgery is not commonly performed, the polycystic ovaries can be treated with a laparoscopic procedure called "ovarian drilling" (puncture of 4–10 small follicles with electrocautery, laser, or biopsy needles), which often results in either resumption of spontaneous ovulations or ovulations after adjuvant treatment with clomiphene or FSH. (Ovarian wedge resection is no longer used as much due to complications such as adhesions and the presence of frequently effective medications.) There are, however, concerns about the long-term effects of ovarian drilling on ovarian function.
Even though the name suggests that the ovaries are central to disease pathology, cysts are a symptom instead of the cause of the disease. Some symptoms of PCOS will persist even if both ovaries are removed; the disease can appear even if cysts are absent. Since its first description by Stein and Leventhal in 1935, the criteria of diagnosis, symptoms, and causative factors are subject to debate. Gynecologists often see it as a gynecological problem, with the ovaries being the primary organ affected. However, recent insights show a multisystem disorder, with the primary problem lying in hormonal regulation in the hypothalamus, with the involvement of many organs. The name PCOD is used when there is ultrasonographic evidence. The term PCOS is used since there is a wide spectrum of symptoms possible, and cysts in the ovaries are seen only in 15% of people.
Hi Dokbru, simula po kasi nag ka hyperacidity ako last october hindi n naman po nag regular ang menstruation ko. Minsan isang buwan konti lang lalabas n dugo n medyo parang putik pa ang kulay nya s ngaun po mag 2months n po akong d dinadatnan. Di naman po ako mabuntis kasi wala po dito asawa ko.. Nung high school pa po kc ako nkaranas na ako ng di nireregla at 5months po un .. Anu po pwede kung gawin?
Human data regarding metformin improvement in IR in PCOS women shows mixed results and is complicated by varying methods of assessing IR. Short term (3 mo) treatment with metformin (1500 mg per day) failed to affect IR as measured by AUC-Insulin after 75-g OGTT. Metformin (1600 mg per day) in obese PCOS women treated for 6 mo failed to reduce IR as measured by QUICKI. This is in contrast to similar length studies on obese PCOS women who demonstrated decreased IR as measured by HOMA-IR, QUICKI and ISI, and correlated with alterations in phosphoproteins related to IR. Longer term metformin therapy (2 years, 1600 mg per day) in young, obese PCOS women reduced fasting insulin, hyperandrogenism and produced borderline reductions in HOMA-IR (P = 0.05). Metformin was compared prospectively to naltrexone and prenisolone in combination with oral contraceptive pills (OCPS). IR was unchanged despite lowered androgen levels. Metformin has been compared to orlistat and pioglitazone over a 4 mo treatment course and although each treatment reduced IR as measured by HOMA-IR, metformin (1500 mg per day) had the least reduction (< 20%).
PCOS is the most common hormone disorder in women and one of the leading causes of infertility, affecting roughly 5-10% of women of childbearing age. The condition can affect girls as young as 11. Because the signs and symptoms often seem unrelated and the diagnostic criteria are not yet clear, most women are not diagnosed until they are in their 20's or 30's. It appears to run in families. Women with sisters who have PCOS are twice as likely to have the condition.
A lot of people only know things about post-junkie Luna and think that it was the drugs that turned her into a bad person. Can't really blame them; the vast majority of pre-Luna discussion/posts consist of pictures of her and her friends, her upbringing, and her short-lived college career. How are they going to know that she was a cunt prior to getting hooked?
The diagnostic workup should begin with a thorough history and physical examination. Clinicians should focus on the patient's menstrual history, any fluctuations in the patient's weight and their impact on PCOS symptoms, and cutaneous findings (e.g., terminal hair, acne, alopecia, acanthosis nigricans, skin tags).19 Patients should also be asked about factors related to common comorbidities of PCOS.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex condition that is most often diagnosed by the presence of two of the three following criteria: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. Because these findings may have multiple causes other than PCOS, a careful, targeted history and physical examination are required to ensure appropriate diagnosis and treatment. This article provides an algorithmic approach to the care of patients with suspected or known PCOS.
Su médico le hará un examen físico y preguntará sobre su salud, medicamentos y ciclo menstrual. El médico también querrá saber si hay antecedentes familiares del síndrome (su madre, una hermana o tía). En el examen físico, el médico le medirá la presión arterial y determinará su estatura y peso. Su médico también examinará su vellosidad y buscará parches de piel oscura.
Weight loss achieved through dietary changes and exercise can help women with PCOS in several ways. Like men and women without PCOS, losing weight reduces a person's risk of cardiovascular disease and non-insulin dependent (type 2) diabetes. Weight loss also helps to lower the level of insulin in the body which, in turn, reduces the ovaries' production of testosterone.
Lack of ovulation (monthly release of an egg from the ovary) is the predominant cause for infertility in PCOS women, although some individuals also may have a higher rate of miscarriage. In some PCOS women who are overweight, diet combined with exercise can restore ovulation without the use of medications. Otherwise, several medications are available to restore ovulation in PCOS women. Oral clomiphene citrate stimulates FSH secretion from a woman’s own pituitary (located at the base of the skull) to induce ovarian follicle growth. Subcutaneous injections of gonadotropins with FSH and LH can induce the same events, if necessary. Both medications increase the chance of multiple births, although FSH injections are the most powerful. Other medications include metformin, an insulin sensitizer that slowly lowers insulin and androgen levels to gradually induce ovulation with a lower chance of multiple births. Medications that block estrogen production to stimulate FSH secretion (letrozol) also exist, but additional studies are needed before they can be routinely recommended for ovulation induction. Since most PCOS women ovulate following medical therapy, surgery or in-vitro fertilization (IVF) are generally reserved for PCOS women who fail to ovulate with medication or have other fertility problems.
Excess insulin. Insulin is the hormone produced in the pancreas that allows cells to use sugar, your body's primary energy supply. If your cells become resistant to the action of insulin, then your blood sugar levels can rise and your body might produce more insulin. Excess insulin might increase androgen production, causing difficulty with ovulation.