Clinical trials have shown that metformin can effectively reduce androgen levels, improve insulin sensitivity, and facilitate weight loss in patients with PCOS as early as adolescence. [55, 56, 57, 58] One study concluded that the use of metformin throughout pregnancy was associated with a 9-fold decrease in gestational diabetes in women with PCOS. [59] In addition to having the potential to reduce gestational diabetes in pregnant women with PCOS, metformin may also reduce the risk of preeclampsia in this population. [60]
The ultimate goal is to prevent metabolic disease. Metformin (1500 mg per day) compared to placebo in a prospective 12 wk randomized control trial decreased arterial stiffness (by peripheral pressure waveforms in the brachial artery) and endothelial function (measured by augmentation index). Metformin did not reduce HOMA-IR[82]. The study population was obese but young (mean age 30 years), demonstrating the ability to reduce CAD risk even in very young women. Metformin has reduced both carotid intimal media thickness and endothelin levels in obese PCOS women[83]. In many studies metformin has reduced both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels[84-86], triglyceride levels[84] and increased HDL levels[87,88]. Animal studies have shown that acarbose given to insulin resistant rats decreased carotid intimal hyperplasia and blood flow velocities[89]. Taken as a whole, the ability of metformin (and likely other insulin sensitizing agents) to elicit an overall reduction in the risk for CAD may be easier than the ability to produce consistent measureable improvements.

Muchas gracias por tu comentario 🙂 Efectivamente, PCOS tiene como objetivo ayudar a regular los niveles que están desajustados en las mujeres con SOP. De esta forma, contribuye a que las reglas se regulen de forma natural y se alivien otros síntomas del SOP. PCOS es eficaz en 8 de cada 10 mujeres y suele regular los ciclos tras 2/3 meses tomándolo.

The prevalence of insulin resistance in women with PCOS, as measured by impaired glucose tolerance, is substantially higher than expected compared with age-and weight-matched populations of women without PCOS.45 Although insulin resistance alone is a laboratory (not clinical) aberration, it can lead to diabetes, and it may be associated with the metabolic syndrome, thus leading to increased cardiovascular risk.2 As with diabetes, optimal treatment of PCOS requires lifestyle modifications (e.g., diet, exercise) in addition to appropriate medications.
According to Dr. Geoffrey Redmond, an endocrinologist specializing in female hormones, “Just because the ovaries are not functioning as much doesn’t mean the other abnormalities won’t still be present.” He goes on to point out that studies show male hormone levels climb fairly sharply with age.2 This could mean a worsening of symptoms such as excess hair growth as those hormones become more active. It could also mean insulin-related issues such as diabetes and cardiovascular health could become more problematic.

No universal definition of insulin resistance exists and therefore no standard clinical technique to measure insulin resistance exists. Insulin resistance can be thought of as a metabolic state where normal glucose homeostasis mechanisms fail to operate properly. Translating theory to clinical practice has been a source of frustration for many practitioners. The American Diabetes Association has characterized IR as a state of impaired metabolic response to insulin[43]. IR is characterized by an inability of normal amounts of insulin to achieve the normal predicted response, often in the clinical setting of central adiposity. To achieve euglycemia, the pancreas over secretes insulin[44]. Investigators define IR based on hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp techniques as a state of impaired glucose disposal in response to insulin[22]. Despite no consensus, clamp techniques have become the reference for understanding IR.


The clinical presentation of PCOS is variable. Patients may be asymptomatic or they may have multiple gynecologic, dermatologic, or metabolic manifestations. Patients with PCOS most commonly present with signs of hyperandrogenism and a constellation of oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, or infertility.19,22 Workup for PCOS is sometimes prompted by an incidental finding of multiple ovarian cysts after ultrasonography.
The goal of further evaluation of suspected PCOS is twofold: to exclude other treatable conditions that can mimic PCOS and to detect and treat long-term metabolic complications. Anovulation is common after menarche, so it is reasonable to delay workup for PCOS in adolescents until they have been oligomenorrheic for at least two years.28 If an adolescent is evaluated for PCOS, it has been suggested that she meet all three of the Rotterdam criteria before being diagnosed with the condition28  (Table 119).
Clinical investigations found no adverse effects for the six herbal medicines included in this review (Table 2). A comparative study investigating the pharmaceutical Bromocriptine and the herbal medicine Vitex agnus-castus found no side effects associated Vitex agnus-ca stus compared to 12.5% of participants taking Bromocriptine reporting nausea and vomiting [63]. No studies comparing the effectiveness for herbal medicines and the oral contraceptive pill in PCOS, oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism were found.
The prescription cream eflornithine HCl can slow the growth of new hair when applied as directed on the face and other areas – but it won’t remove existing hair. 20,21 Your doctor may also prescribe a medication called an anti-androgen. In the United States, a medication called spironolactone is used to slow new hair growth. In other countries, cyproterone acetate is widely used but it is not available in the United States.  
Diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is relatively straightforward. Common criteria established by the Rotterdam Conference in 2003 include at least two of three characteristics (oligomenorrhea, clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism and ultrasound criteria) in the absence of other disease. PCOS is the most common hormonal disorder in women worldwide with prevalence estimates between 4%-8% but as high as 25% in some populations[1]. Women often initiate medical care for a cluster of PCOS symptoms (infertility, hirsutism and irregular menstrual cycles) that ultimately are not the most concerning medical consequences of PCOS [diabetes mellitus (DM), coronary artery disease (CAD), endometrial hyperplasia/cancer]. Here exists an important paradigm in the recognition and treatment of PCOS.

Las mujeres con PCOS pueden tomar medicamentos para la fertilidad como Clomid o inyectárselos a fin de inducir la ovulación. Las mujeres también pueden tomar medicamentos para aumentar la sensibilidad a la insulina o esteroides (para reducir el nivel de andrógeno) a fin de inducir la ovulación. Algunos estudios también indican que tomar una dosis baja de aspirina, que ayuda a prevenir la coagulación en el recubrimiento uterino y mejora la circulación, puede mejorar la probabilidad de un embarazo.


Hormonal aberrations in women with PCOS (e.g., elevated androgen levels) can cause menstrual irregularities (e.g., oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, anovulatory cycles) that can lead to dysfunctional uterine bleeding and infertility.2 First-line agents for ovulation induction and treatment of infertility in patients with PCOS include metformin8,11,15,32,35,36 and clomiphene (Clomid),6,7 alone or in combination, as well as rosiglitazone.19,20,32
Jump up ^ Pundir, J; Psaroudakis, D; Savnur, P; Bhide, P; Sabatini, L; Teede, H; Coomarasamy, A; Thangaratinam, S (24 May 2017). "Inositol treatment of anovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomised trials". BJOG : An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 125 (3): 299–308. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.14754. PMID 28544572.
Muchas gracias por tu comentario. Te cuento: PCOS es un complemento 100% natural y no tiene efectos secundarios no deseados ni interacciones con otros medicamentos. Por ello, es compatible con la píldora y con la metformina, que en ocasiones también se receta para el SOP. En caso de que quieras quedarte embarazada, también puedes tomar PCOS sin la píldora, con el objetivo de ayudar a regular tus ciclos y facilitar la fecundación del óvulo, evitando que éste se quede enquistado dentro del ovario 🙂
Women with PCOS have a normal uterus and healthy eggs. Many women with PCOS have trouble getting pregnant, but some women have no trouble at all. If you’re concerned about your fertility (ability to get pregnant) in the future, talk to your health care provider about all the new options available, including medications to lower your insulin levels or to help you ovulate each month.
*DISCLAIMER: These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. The views and nutritional advice expressed by Luna Smooth are not intended to be a substitute for conventional medical service. If you have a severe medical condition, see your physician of choice. Individual results may vary.

Jump up ^ Pundir, J; Psaroudakis, D; Savnur, P; Bhide, P; Sabatini, L; Teede, H; Coomarasamy, A; Thangaratinam, S (24 May 2017). "Inositol treatment of anovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomised trials". BJOG : An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 125 (3): 299–308. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.14754. PMID 28544572.

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) indicate that lifestyle modifications such as weight loss and increased exercise in conjunction with a change in diet consistently reduce the risk of diabetes. This approach has been found to be comparable to or better than treatment with medication and should therefore be considered first-line treatment in managing women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). [2, 3] These modifications have been effective in restoring ovulatory cycles and achieving pregnancy in obese women with PCOS. Weight loss in obese women with PCOS also improves hyperandrogenic features.
Regular menstruation is important for the prevention of endometrial cancer. Women with PCOS are three times more likely to have endometrial cancer than women without. When a woman isn’t menstruating on a frequent basis, the lining of the uterus (endometrium) can begin to grow excessively and undergo atypical cell changes resulting in a precancerous condition called endometrial hyperplasia. If left untreated, this can develop into full endometrial cancer. Hormonal birth-control pills are often prescribed to help women with PCOS shed their endometrium more regularly, an important measure for preventing the overgrowth of cells in the uterus.

76. Chen J-T, Tominaga K, Sato Y, Anzai H, Matsuoka R. Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) extract induces ovulation in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a possible monotherapy and a combination therapy after failure with first-line clomiphene citrate. J Alternative Compl Med. 2010;16(12):1295–1299. doi: 10.1089/acm.2009.0696. [PubMed] [CrossRef]


What are the health benefits of kale? Kale is a leafy green vegetable featured in a variety of meals. With more nutritional value than spinach, kale may help to improve blood glucose, lower the risk of cancer, reduce blood pressure, and prevent asthma. Here, learn about the benefits and risks of consuming kale. We also feature tasty serving suggestions. Read now
Peer reviewers: Luciano Pirola, PhD, Epigenetics in Human Health and Disease Laboratory, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, 5th floor, 75 Commercial Road, Melbourne VIC 3004 Australia; Marcin Baranowski, PhD, Department of Physiology, Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2c, Bialystok 15-222, Poland; Christa Buechler, PhD, Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Hospital, Regensburg D93042, Germany

The risk of developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes is increased in women with PCOS, particularly if they have a family history of diabetes. Obesity and insulin resistance, both associated with PCOS, are significant risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Several studies have shown that women with PCOS have abnormal levels of LDL ("bad") cholesterol and lowered levels of HDL ("good") cholesterol in the blood. Elevated levels of blood triglycerides have also been described in women with PCOS.

Where US is available, CC treatment should be initiated between the third and fifth day of the menstrual cycle and the couple should abstain from intercourse (this is not a mandatory measure) until the tenth day of the cycle (when the presence of dominant follicles with a mean diameter of 10 mm or more is assessed via US). Sexual activity is allowed if the patient presents with monofollicular or bifollicular development. The goal of sexual abstinence until the tenth day of the cycle is to minimize the risk for multiple gestations.
Other excluded studies investigated the herbal medicines included in this review examining conditions other than PCOS, oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism. These included investigations into effectiveness for Vitex agnus-castus for pre-menstrual syndrome [92–97] and mastalgia [98, 99], Cimicifuga racemosa for menopausal symptoms [100] and Glycyrrhiza spp with Paeonia lactiflora libido in males [101].
she doesnt say shit until someone else brings her up, she screencaps probably most of the milk for this thread and yeah has left her icon in a few times and pretends to be nice to tuna for milk, but any of you bitches would do the same if tuna talked to you and you were screencapping as many posts as she does. just stfu already, theres no milk besides the stuff from tuna that shes farming for us

You can lose weight by exercising regularly and having a healthy, balanced diet. Your diet should include plenty of fruit and vegetables, (at least five portions a day), whole foods (such as wholemeal bread, wholegrain cereals and brown rice), lean meats, fish and chicken. Your GP may be able to refer you to a dietitian if you need specific dietary advice.
PCOS es un complemento que ayuda a equilibrar los niveles hormonales (exceso de testosterona) en las mujeres con SOP. Esos desequilibrios hormonales provocan en la mayoría de los casos signos externos de hiperandrogenismo como exceso de vello, caída excesiva del cabello y acné. Al regular tus niveles hormonales, conseguirás suavizar y mejorar esos signos externos 🙂

Ang eksaktong dahilan nagiging sanhi ng hormonal kawalan ng timbang ay hindi kilala. Gayunman, genetic predisposition ay itinuturing bilang isa sa mga nangungunang mga dahilan para sa PCOS. Katangi-kalakip na kondisyon na nakikita sa PCOS matataas na antas ng mga lalaki hormones at insulin na humahantong sa iba't-ibang mga sintomas na kaugnay sa ito sindrom.
Like >>409129 said, there are non-opioid painkillers. But the chemical component of opioids that relieves pain is not the same component that causes a high anyway. We already have partial opiate agonists (like Suboxone) that people have been on for years. From what I've read about a vaccine like this, opioids could still be administered with the intended effect of substantial pain relief. With no unwanted side effects (high). Someone please correct me if I'm wrong, this prospect really excites me. Something like this could lead to a whole new class of painkilling drugs for people with chronic pain, allowing them to function without being high at all times.
Other tests that may be helpful but are not necessary for diagnosis include measurement of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels to determine a serum ratio of LH/FSH. A ratio greater than 2 generally indicates PCOS, but there are no exact cutoff values because many different assays are used.26 The FSH level is more helpful in ruling out ovarian failure.26
PCOS is a life-long condition and although the exact cause is yet to be identified, it is believed to have epigenetic origins, influenced by the uterine environment and behavioural factors [19]. Being overweight exacerbates all aspects of PCOS due to underlying metabolic disturbances [3]. Signs and symptoms are mediated by hormonal disorder including elevated androgens and fasting insulin, and abnormal relative ratio of the gonadotropins luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) [19]. Endocrine imbalances occur within the framework of disordered ovarian folliculogenesis, chronic anovulation, clinical signs of hyperandrogenism and metabolic syndrome [19].
Just fyi, when a cat stops grooming itself, it's a sign that it's about to die. Or at least something is seriously wrong, physically or psychologically. Elderly cats typically stop grooming themselves when they're about to die. I'm a vet tech, and have seen cats in their early 20's that still groom themselves. They may need a bit of help with their back ends due to arthritis, but a well cared for cat of any age will at least try.
OGTT with 75-g glucose and hourly glucose and insulin measurements has been compared to clamp techniques. Insulin sensitivity calculated by mathematical transformation of measurements has shown good correlation with glucose disposal using clamp techniques[48]. Although the OGTT is easy to perform, these calculations are more complex and make this particular calculation less desirable for clinical use. However these data show that 1 and 2 h levels are often needed to diagnose IR and stress the potential for false negative results with fasting measurements alone. In patients undergoing clamp and OGTT no correlation was observed between fasting glucose/insulin ratios and IR on the clamp[48].
Los complementos alimenticios no deben utilizarse como sustitutos de una dieta variada, equilibrada y de un estilo de vida saludable. No superar la dosis diaria recomendada. Si está  pensando en tomarlo consulte antes con su médico. Mantener fuera del alcance de los niños más pequeños. Conservar en un lugar fresco y seco, protegido de la luz solar y las fuentes de calor. Consumir preferentemente antes de la fecha indicada en el envase.

Si bien no se recomienda como primer tratamiento, existe una operación para el tratamiento de PCOS, llamada incisión ovárica. Se realiza un pequeño corte encima o debajo del ombligo y se inserta un pequeño instrumento llamado laparoscopio que sirve como telescopio en el abdomen. Durante la laparoscopía, el médico puede hacer punciones en el ovario con una aguja delgada que tiene corriente eléctrica para destruir una pequeña porción del ovario. La cirugía puede mejorar los niveles hormonales y la ovulación, aunque es posible que la mejoría dure solo unos meses.
Ito ay para lamang sa inyong dagdag kaalaman at hindi maituturing na kapalit ng pagkonsulta sa inyong doktor. Huwag uminom ng gamot nang hindi nagpapatingin sa doktor. Mainam na magpatingin sa isang obstetrician-gynecologist (Ob-Gyn). May mga Ob-Gyn na specialists din sa reproductive endocrinology o fertility na maaring makatulong sa mga babaeng may polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Ang doktor ninyo ang magsasabi kung alin ang nararapat na gamot.

Selection of herbal medicines for the management of PCOS often includes the combined prescription of Glycyrrhiza spp. and Paeonia lactiflora[72–75]. We found preliminary evidence for this combination for hyperandrogenism only, and the evidence was more robust for Glycyrrhiza spp. alone than when combined with Paeonia lactiflora. Comparatively, our findings for the combination of Peaonia lactiflora and Cinnamomum cassia demonstrated no change in androgen concentration, suggesting that the anti-androgen activity in the Glycyrrhiza spp. and Paeonia lactiflora combination more likely attributable to Glycyrrhiza spp. However our findings may be complicated by the aqueous extraction methods used in the Paeonia lactiflora and Cinnamomum cassia combination and the preclinical studies into the Glycorrhizza spp and Paeonia lactiflora combination. More research into the anti-androgen effects of the combination Glycyrrhiza spp. and Paeonia lactiflora is needed to clarify the anti-androgen mechanism particularly if this herbal combination remains cornerstone herbal management for hyperandrogenism.

Mean platelet volume (MPV) is a marker associated with adverse cardiovascular events, and women with newly diagnosed PCOS appear to have significantly elevated MPV levels. [47] Kabil Kucur et al reported that use of ethinyl estradiol/cyproterone acetate or metformin for the treatment of women with PCOS seemed to have similar beneficial effects in reducing MPV. [47]


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females.[4][14] Signs and symptoms of PCOS include irregular or no menstrual periods, heavy periods, excess body and facial hair, acne, pelvic pain, difficulty getting pregnant, and patches of thick, darker, velvety skin.[3] Associated conditions include type 2 diabetes, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, mood disorders, and endometrial cancer.[4]
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