The clinical presentation of PCOS is variable. Patients may be asymptomatic or they may have multiple gynecologic, dermatologic, or metabolic manifestations. Patients with PCOS most commonly present with signs of hyperandrogenism and a constellation of oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, or infertility.19,22 Workup for PCOS is sometimes prompted by an incidental finding of multiple ovarian cysts after ultrasonography.
The diagnostic workup should begin with a thorough history and physical examination. Clinicians should focus on the patient's menstrual history, any fluctuations in the patient's weight and their impact on PCOS symptoms, and cutaneous findings (e.g., terminal hair, acne, alopecia, acanthosis nigricans, skin tags).19 Patients should also be asked about factors related to common comorbidities of PCOS.
A case control study examining 100 infertile women with PCOS found that those who supplemented a daily 1500 mg dose of metformin, a medication commonly used to treat PCOS symptoms, with calcium and vitamin D saw improvements in BMI, menstrual abnormalities, and other symptoms. The women in the study added 1,000 mg of calcium a day and 100,000 IU of vitamin D a month to their daily metformin dose for six months.
She thinks she's pretty much perfect, and having one thing about herself she doesn't like won't convince me that Tuna is a ~dark twisted individual full of self-hate. She clearly doesn't fit that image, and she's trying to make herself appear like that but it's 100% fake. Pic related, it's a call-out post from one of her old friends, seeing as people in here seem too newfag to know Luna's ways.
Any lawfags here that can help us out understanding this? From what I roughly gather he's only had Pre-Arraignment so today would be a formal Arraignment deciding whether or not to ask for bail. But his court info says he's already been given ROR so it seems pointless now to come back and decide whether or not to ask for bail or take him to Rikers.
Medications to cause ovulation. Medications can help the ovaries to release eggs normally. These medications also have certain risks. They can increase the chance for a multiple birth (twins or more). And they can cause ovarian hyperstimulation. This is when the ovaries release too many hormones. It can cause symptoms such as abdominal bloating and pelvic pain.
Obese women with PCOS may have an increased risk of congenital anomalies (heart and neural tube defects), gestational diabetes mellitus [odds ratio (OR) 2.94; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.70-5.08], hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (OR 3.67; 95% CI: 1.98-6.81) [mainly preeclampsia (OR 3.47; 95% CI: 1.95-6.17)], miscarriages, preterm births (OR 1.75; 95% CI: 1.16-2.62), the need for intensive unit care (OR 2.31; 95% CI: 1.25-4.26), increased perinatal mortality (OR 3.07; 95% CI: 1.03-9.21) 11,12 and Caesarean delivery (OR 1.74; 95% CI: 1.38-2.11) 12. The risk for preterm births and preeclampsia appears to be associated with maternal hyperandrogenism 13.
The principle infertility treatment includes lifestyle changes. The first-line drug treatment to induce ovulation consists of CC with timed intercourse. The second-line treatment consists of the exogenous administration of gonadotropins or laparoscopic ovarian surgery in cases where laparoscopy is indicated. The third-line treatment consists of IVF/ICSI, which is indicated when the previous interventions fail; this treatment can also be the first choice in cases of bilateral tubal occlusion or semen alterations that impair the occurrence of natural pregnancy. There is no evidence for the routine use of metformin in infertility treatment of anovulatory women with PCOS. Aromatase inhibitors are promising, and long-term studies are necessary to prove their safety.
Metformin is among one of the main treatments to target insulin resistance if you have prediabetes or diabetes, including because of PCOS. The advice is controversial, but some physicians believe that PCOS always requires metformin, notes Dr. Dunaif. “There’s no reason to give every woman with PCOS metformin. It’s a good and safe drug, but there’s no point in taking it if you don’t need it,” she says. (She notes that it has such a good safety profile that even when overprescribed, it doesn’t cause any harm.) But it’s not a good way to reduce the male hormone symptoms, like excess hair growth.
Hirsutism: On the complete other end of the spectrum as hair loss, women who have hirsutism experience excess hair growth in oftentimes very noticeable places, such as their face, chest, and back. This is also a very embarrassing issue for women to cope with in their daily life. According to research experts, “hirsutism appears to be strongly related with hyperandrogenism (imbalance of male sex hormones) and metabolic abnormalities in PCOS women.”4
“When we compared participants with women in the general population, we found significantly higher scores on all of the symptoms evaluated and on corresponding psychological distress measures, particularly for anxiety, depression, somatization (the conversion of psychological distress to physical symptoms), and interpersonal sensitivity,” says lead author Judy McCook, PhD, RN, professor of nursing at East Tennessee State University.
Agreed, sounds like a bunch of insecure teenagers trying to tear people down for things they can't help so they can feel better about their own misshapen bodies. Luna is shitty enough of her own accord; no need to get all up in arms over things that she has no control over when she doesn't even pretend to be a flawless aphrodite like many of the cows here. It's just self-serving tryhardery at that point.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), also known as polycystic ovarian syndrome, is a common health problem caused by an imbalance of reproductive hormones. The hormonal imbalance creates problems in the ovaries. The ovaries make the egg that is released each month as part of a healthy menstrual cycle. With PCOS, the egg may not develop as it should or it may not be released during ovulation as it should be.