PCOS is a heterogeneous disorder of uncertain cause.[23][24] There is some evidence that it is a genetic disease. Such evidence includes the familial clustering of cases, greater concordance in monozygotic compared with dizygotic twins and heritability of endocrine and metabolic features of PCOS.[7][23][24] There is some evidence that exposure to higher than typical levels of androgens in utero increases the risk of developing PCOS in later life.[25]
Insulin-sensitizing agents, including metformin,11,32 rosiglitazone,19,20,32 and pioglitazone (Actos),17 have been effective in improving fertility and ovulation in women with PCOS. There are contradictions in the literature regarding whether metformin, clomiphene, or a combination of the two agents is superior for improving pregnancy rates in women with PCOS. A 2003 Cochrane review suggested that metformin should be a first-line treatment for infertility in women with PCOS.39 A more recent study confirmed that six months of metformin therapy was more effective than six months of clomiphene therapy for improving fertility in anovulatory, nonobese women with PCOS.8 However, a large randomized trial of more than 600 women found that clomiphene is superior to metformin in achieving live birth in infertile women with PCOS, with no statistical benefit to the addition of metformin to clomiphene.40 Another study also showed no benefit from adding metformin to clomiphene.35 However, two meta-analyses suggested that the combination is better than clomiphene alone.41,42 A more recent study found that, although ovulation rates were better with metformin than with clomiphene, pregnancy rates were similar.43 Finally, two systematic reviews found conflicting results; one suggests metformin does not affect ovulation or pregnancy rates,1 and the other suggests it does.44
34. Griesinger G, Schultz L, Bauer T, Broessner A, Frambach T, Kissler S. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome prevention by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist triggering of final oocyte maturation in a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol in combination with a "freeze-all" strategy: a prospective multicentric study. Fertil Steril. 2011;95(6):2029–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2011.01.163 [PubMed]
Pharmaceutical treatment for menstrual irregularity includes the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) and ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate (clomiphene) [20, 21] depending on fertility needs. Women with PCOS are however likely to exhibit contraindications for the OCP [3] and whilst induction of ovulation with clomiphene has demonstrated success, pregnancy rates remain inexplicably low [4]. Up to thirty 30% of women, particularly overweight women with PCOS, fail to respond to clomiphene therapy [4, 22, 23]. Management for hyperandrogenism includes anti-androgens and hypoglycaemic pharmaceuticals such as metformin [24]. Metfomin has demonstrated effectiveness for improving insulin sensitivity and hyperandrogenism, however use of metformin is associated with the high incidence of adverse effects including nausea, vomiting and gastro-intestinal disturbances [5].
Hirsutism is treated with a combination of approaches, including oral contraceptives with or without an antiandrogen, such as spironolactone, to lower levels or block actions of androgen on hair follicles. Oral contraceptives are often combined with antiandrogens to improve their clinical effect and to prevent pregnancy, since accidental exposure of the male fetus to antiantrogens can harm fetal development. A topical cream (eflornithine hydrochloride) also can be applied to treat facial hirsutism.

This was originally developed as a blood pressure medication and diuretic for hormonal forms of high blood pressure (hypertension) and fluid retention. “Turns out, in high doses, it’s very good at blocking male hormones,” explains Dunaif. For that reason, it’s used to target excess hair growth, a symptom of PCOS that can be particularly embarrassing.
Oh FUCK no. Someone please let the woman know; it's a matter of saving an animal from a lifetime of misery and despair. Siamese cats are much harder to properly keep than the average housecat and needs a household where they'll be stimulated and properly trained so they don't get aggressive. There's no way two lazy dirty junkies could take care of one.

Nigga u wot?? Seriously, read through at least one of her threads before virtue signaling. She is NOT a "sweet woman." She talks shit about everyone once they stop giving her money or ass pats. She claims her dad is the absolute worst and yet brags when he buys her a new grandma bra or when they smoke weed together. She HAS been to rehab, but dropped it once she realized it wasn't a cool place to hang out with druggies.


A lot of people only know things about post-junkie Luna and think that it was the drugs that turned her into a bad person. Can't really blame them; the vast majority of pre-Luna discussion/posts consist of pictures of her and her friends, her upbringing, and her short-lived college career. How are they going to know that she was a cunt prior to getting hooked?

Even though the name suggests that the ovaries are central to disease pathology, cysts are a symptom instead of the cause of the disease. Some symptoms of PCOS will persist even if both ovaries are removed; the disease can appear even if cysts are absent. Since its first description by Stein and Leventhal in 1935, the criteria of diagnosis, symptoms, and causative factors are subject to debate. Gynecologists often see it as a gynecological problem, with the ovaries being the primary organ affected. However, recent insights show a multisystem disorder, with the primary problem lying in hormonal regulation in the hypothalamus, with the involvement of many organs. The name PCOD is used when there is ultrasonographic evidence. The term PCOS is used since there is a wide spectrum of symptoms possible, and cysts in the ovaries are seen only in 15% of people.[33]
Jump up ^ Pundir, J; Psaroudakis, D; Savnur, P; Bhide, P; Sabatini, L; Teede, H; Coomarasamy, A; Thangaratinam, S (24 May 2017). "Inositol treatment of anovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomised trials". BJOG : An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 125 (3): 299–308. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.14754. PMID 28544572.
During a transvaginal ultrasound, your doctor or a medical technician inserts a wandlike device (transducer) into your vagina while you lie on your back on an exam table. The transducer emits sound waves that generate images of your pelvic organs, including your ovaries. On an ultrasound image (inset), a polycystic ovary shows many follicles. Each dark circle on the ultrasound image represents a fluid-filled follicle in the ovary. Your doctor may suspect PCOS if you have 20 or more follicles in each ovary.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex condition that is most often diagnosed by the presence of two of the three following criteria: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. Because these findings may have multiple causes other than PCOS, a careful, targeted history and physical examination are required to ensure appropriate diagnosis and treatment. This article provides an algorithmic approach to the care of patients with suspected or known PCOS.

Clomiphene (Clomid) is an oral medication that is the most common treatment used to induce ovulation. The use of both metformin and clomiphene has about the same fertility results as clomiphene use alone. A benefit is that metformin may help reduce the risk for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (see also "What is ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) during assisted reproductive technology (ART) fertility treatments. Other treatments to stimulate ovulation include another oral medication called letrozole (Femara) and gonadotropins which are hormones that are given by injection. In vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro maturation (IVM) may be other fertility treatment options.

Grassi, Angela MS, RD, LDN and Stephanie B. Mattei, Psy.D, Troiano, Leah. The PCOS Workbook: Your Guide to Complete Physical and Emotional Health. Luca Publishing, 2009. The PCOS Workbook is a guide that includes step–by–step guidelines, questionnaires, and exercises that will help you learn skills and empower you to make positive changes in your life that might not get rid of PCOS, but will help you live with it.
“I always look at diet and lifestyle — how I can help patients modify their focus and remove obstacles that may be in their way on the path towards wellness,” says April Blake, ND. “As a naturopathic doctor, I prefer to utilize therapies that are gentle and less invasive, and focus on mind-body medicine and lifestyle. If you’re looking for alternatives to traditional treatments, there are several evidence-based therapeutics that have been shown to be effective.”
Gud pm po ask q lng po nung nanganak po kc aq nbinat aq sumakit po ang kaliwang tagiliran q nung ngpachekup po aq ang sv my ovarian cyst dw po aq peru wla aman po aq ibng naramdaman kundi mskt pag malamig lng at pag mlapit na mens q pumipitik po ‘ang sv ng ob .dudurugen lng dw po peru wla naman xa nreseta skn .mula po nun lage nq nakukunan bago 2muntong ng 2 muntz . Anu po kya ang pwd q gawen at inumen .pag mlameg po msaket sv aman po ng ibng doktor ugat lng dw po na namaga s bndang ovary need dw po ilaser …anu po maipapayo nyo tnx

The treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome has evolved considerably since the influence of insulin has been discovered. In the past, treatment was often aimed exclusively at specific symptoms rather than trying to impact some of the underlying influences. Symptoms can definitely be improved individually but addressing influencing conditions like insulin resistance often produces broader results. If insulin resistance is a factor in your PCOS (some women with PCOS are not insulin resistant), then the most effective course of action is to improve your diet. Start a regular exercise program and take supplements or medication recommended by your health care provider.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is not a simple pathophysiologic process for which one treatment addresses all manifestations. It is a condition that occurs in approximately 5 to 10 percent of women of childbearing age.1 It can affect women in many different ways; therefore, physicians must individualize treatment goals and target treatment to specific manifestations. Comorbidities (e.g., cardiovascular risk factors, endocrinologic disease) and the patient's desire for pregnancy must be considered when choosing a treatment regimen.
The definitive cause of PCOS is unknown, but researchers have found a strong link to insulin resistance, a genetic condition often associated with diabetes, in which the muscle, fat, and liver cells do not respond properly to insulin and thus cannot easily absorb glucose (sugar) from the bloodstream. As a result, the body produces higher and higher levels of insulin to help glucose enter the cells.
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Anecdotally, oral contraceptives are among the most common agents used to treat menstrual irregularities in women with PCOS. However, there are few studies examining their effect on menstrual cycles in women with PCOS. Cyproterone acetate plus ethinyl estradiol has been extensively studied, but it is not available in the United States. Studies suggest that the following agents may improve menstrual irregularities (e.g., oligomenorrhea): spironolactone (in an open-label study),22 acarbose,24 rosigli-tazone,32 and metformin.10,11,32,47,51 Metformin is probably the best choice because it may improve insulin resistance in addition to improving menstrual irregularities.

Hola, hace 3 años me quitaron unos pólipos del endometrio y me diagnosticaron ovarios poliquísticos me han tratado tengo bastante sobrepeso perdí 17 kg y los volví a recuperar mi ginecólogo me recomendó tomar metformina y inofolic fert desde septiembre del año pasado estoy tomando el inofolic fert porque el dianben lo tuve que dejar ya que los efectos secundarios eran tener muchas diarreas y también padezco de colon irritable con lo cual me estaba haciendo bastante daño ahora mismo llevo 5 meses sin regla y me gustaría saber, sí el PCOS, me podría ayudar en mi caso


PCOS's principal signs and symptoms are related to menstrual disturbances and elevated levels of male hormones (androgens). Menstrual disturbances can include delay of normal menstruation (primary amenorrhea), the presence of fewer than normal menstrual periods (oligomenorrhea), or the absence of menstruation for more than three months (secondary amenorrhea ). Menstrual cycles may not be associated with ovulation (anovulatory cycles) and may result in heavy bleeding.

It’s important to follow-up regularly with your health care provider and make sure you take all the medications prescribed to regulate your periods and lessen your chance of getting diabetes or other health problems. Because you have a slightly higher chance of developing diabetes, your health care provider may suggest that you have your blood sugar tested once a year, or have a glucose challenge test every few years. Quitting smoking (or never starting) will also improve your overall health. Because you have a higher chance of developing diabetes, your health care provider may suggest having a:
Jump up ^ Legro RS, Barnhart HX, Schlaff WD, Carr BR, Diamond MP, Carson SA, Steinkampf MP, Coutifaris C, McGovern PG, Cataldo NA, Gosman GG, Nestler JE, Giudice LC, Leppert PC, Myers ER (2007). "Clomiphene, metformin, or both for infertility in the polycystic ovary syndrome". N. Engl. J. Med. 356 (6): 551–66. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa063971. PMID 17287476.[non-primary source needed]
Lifestyle interventions are usually required for long term sustainable results. PCOS women who smoke have higher free androgen levels and IR as measured by HOMA-IR, QUICKI and the insulin sensitivity index following 75 g OGTT[104]. Thus PCOS women who smoke have an additional reason to stop smoking. In more general population studies (non-PCOS) comprised mostly of middle-aged women, lifestyle intervention is more effective than metformin in preventing the progression to DM. Dietary and exercise intervention decreased the 4 year progression to DM in patients at risk (non-diabetic, elevated fasting and/or OGTT glucose) by almost 50%[105]. Realizing the limitations of applying this population sample to young PCOS women, it still highlights the benefit of non-pharmacological treatment. PCOS women randomized to both metformin and lifestyle interventions (compared to placebo) showed improvements in HOMAIR after 4 mo[106]. In European adolescents with PCOS who failed to achieve improvements in HOMA-IR after 6 mo of lifestyle intervention, both metformin and placebo reduced IR over 6 mo, although metformin offered no benefit over placebo[107]. Lifestyle modification in adolescents has been successful in reducing hyperandrogenism[103]. Modest weight loss of about 5% bodyweight has also been shown to lower hyperandrogenism[108] which may ultimately improve IR.
He probably does, and is trying to "make it up" to her by buying her all these purses, makeup, etc. and giving her money. I dated a girl for a while who would always shit-talk her dad as being "abusive" and "a narcissist." She'd scream at him and throw literal tantrums whenever he'd try to ask her- politely, I might add- about possibly finding a job or coming to visit him, and he'd throw money and gifts at her to try to make her love him. (The twist here is that she turned out to be the abusive narcissist. Ha. Ha ha.)
Gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) This is a common herb used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine and has been called the herbal form of Metformin.3 It is an anti-diabetic that is characterized by insulin modulating activity which means it regulates insulin levels while controlling sugar or carbohydrate cravings. Gymnema actually numbs the sweet taste areas of the taste buds which helps suppress appetite. Some research has indicated that this herb might stimulate production of cells in the pancreas which in turn increases the levels of insulin in the body.
Gynecologic ultrasonography, specifically looking for small ovarian follicles. These are believed to be the result of disturbed ovarian function with failed ovulation, reflected by the infrequent or absent menstruation that is typical of the condition. In a normal menstrual cycle, one egg is released from a dominant follicle – in essence, a cyst that bursts to release the egg. After ovulation, the follicle remnant is transformed into a progesterone-producing corpus luteum, which shrinks and disappears after approximately 12–14 days. In PCOS, there is a so-called "follicular arrest"; i.e., several follicles develop to a size of 5–7 mm, but not further. No single follicle reaches the preovulatory size (16 mm or more). According to the Rotterdam criteria, which are widely used for diagnosis,[10] 12 or more small follicles should be seen in an ovary on ultrasound examination.[53] More recent research suggests that there should be at least 25 follicles in an ovary to designate it as having polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) in women aged 18–35 years.[59] The follicles may be oriented in the periphery, giving the appearance of a 'string of pearls'.[60] If a high resolution transvaginal ultrasonography machine is not available, an ovarian volume of at least 10 ml is regarded as an acceptable definition of having polycystic ovarian morphology instead of follicle count.[59]
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