PCOS is the most common endocrinopathy among reproductive-aged women in the United States, affecting approximately 7% of female patients.1 Although its exact etiology is unclear, PCOS is currently thought to emerge from a complex interaction of genetic and environmental traits. Evidence from one twin-family study indicates that there is a strong correlation between familial factors and the presence of PCOS.2


Los complementos alimenticios no deben utilizarse como sustitutos de una dieta variada, equilibrada y de un estilo de vida saludable. No superar la dosis diaria recomendada. Si está  pensando en tomarlo consulte antes con su médico. Mantener fuera del alcance de los niños más pequeños. Conservar en un lugar fresco y seco, protegido de la luz solar y las fuentes de calor. Consumir preferentemente antes de la fecha indicada en el envase.

Why treat IR in PCOS women? For many years only PCOS women with DM were treated. As the link between IGT and CAD became more apparent, many PCOS women with IGT were treated. We now understand that IR is often the first step in a progression to DM and CAD. Those who now advocate treatment for IR do so for the following reasons: reduction of insulin and androgen levels, prevention of IGT and DM, potential for improved ovulation, symptomatic improvement, prevention of MS[63]. Ultimately, secondary prevention in young women with identifiable and treatment precursor conditions is far more desirable and easier than treatment of these same women later in life with serious disease.
6. Azziz R, Carmina E, Dewailly D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Escobar-Morreale HF, Futterweit W, et al. Task Force on the Phenotype of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome of The Androgen Excess and PCOS Society. The androgen Excess and PCOS Society criteria for the polycystic ovary syndrome: the complete task force report. Fertil Steril. 2009;91(2):456–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.06.035 [PubMed]
Given the conditions associated with PCOS, the Endocrine Society, the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend that clinicians evaluate patients' blood pressure at every visit and lipid levels at the time of diagnosis, and screen for type 2 diabetes with a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test regardless of a patient's body mass index. Patients should have repeat diabetes screening every three to five years, or more often if other indications for screening are present.19–21 The Endocrine Society further recommends depression screening, as well as screening for symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea in overweight and obese patients with PCOS.19 However, routine screening for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or endometrial cancer (using ultrasonography) is not recommended.19

If the patient does not present with ovulatory cycles at three months after ovarian drilling, then the procedure should be combined with CC treatment. The use of gonadotropins should be considered after 6 months of anovulatory cycles following the ovarian drilling procedure. Ovarian drilling should not be indicated as a treatment for menstrual irregularity, metabolic complications or hyperandrogenism in PCOS 29.

Two laboratory based RCT’s examined the effects of Tribulus Terrestris in rats with polycystic ovaries induced with oestradiol valerate [46, 47] (Table 1). Both studies demonstrate significantly improved ovulation rates for animals treated with two doses of Tribulus terrestris extracts compared to controls. Although the endocrinological effects were not described in either study, laboratory findings of ovulation induction are supported by the clinical findings of elevated FSH following treatment with Tribulus terrestris[56] (Table 2).
El diagnóstico y el tratamiento temprano del síndrome de ovario poliquístico son fundamentales, porque esta afección expone a las afectadas al riesgo de desarrollar problemas a largo plazo. Recibir un tratamiento adecuado también es muy importante si se quiere tener un bebé en el futuro, ya que esta afección suele provocar infertilidad si no se trata. Pero, cuando se trata adecuadamente, muchas mujeres que lo padecen tienen bebés completamente sanos.
Hi dok bru . kailan ko LNG po nalaman na may pcos ako ng mag patingin ako sa doctor 3 buwan po kase akong di dinatnan tas nag kasakit po kase ako dun ko LNG po napag pasyahan na mag patingin sa ob gyn na ultrasound po ako at lumabas po sa resulta ng ultrasound ko na may pcos ako . binigyan po ako ng pampa regla 10 days ko po ininom hanggang sa mag ka roon na ako at nung datnan na po ako almost 2weeks po akong meron tas bumalik po ako sa ob gyn as doctor na pinag konsultahan ko kse nga po almost 2weeks po akong may period then binigyan po ako ng pampatigil after ko pong mainom young gamot nag stop na po ang mens ko. At sabe po ng doctor ko bumalik ako pag tumigil na ang period ko pero di na po ako naka balik para sa next na check up ko sabe po reresetahan ako ng gamot for 6 months na gamutan pero di pa po ako naka balik for follow check up ngayun jan. 12 2016 ko po nalaman na may pcos ako . 20 year old pa LNG ako. Ano po ba mang yayari kung hanggang ngayun di po ako nag pupunta sa ob ko . ano po ang maipapayo nyo saken. Ellaine
Weight loss is also a key first step if you’re planning a pregnancy. It may improve your ability to get pregnant by restoring ovulation3 or make your body more responsive to fertility treatments if that is what is determined you need. In fact, up to 75 percent of women with PCOS who were able to reduce their body weight also had better glucose control and improved androgen hormone levels, helping to restore ovulation and fertility,2,3 experts say.  
Bajar de peso. Los hábitos de alimentación saludable y la actividad física en forma periódica pueden contribuir a aliviar los síntomas relacionados con SOP. Bajar de peso puede ayudar a reducir los niveles de glucosa en sangre, mejorar la forma en la que el cuerpo utiliza la insulina y ayudar a que las hormonas alcancen niveles normales. Inclusive un 10 % de pérdida de peso (por ejemplo, una mujer que pesa 150 libras y que baje 15) puede ayudar a que el ciclo menstrual sea más regular y que tengas más posibilidades de quedar embarazada. 3 Obtén más información sobre el peso saludable.
Obesity that occurs with PCOS needs to be treated because it can cause numerous additional medical problems. The management of obesity in PCOS is similar to the management of obesity in general. Weight loss can help reduce or prevent many of the complications associated with PCOS, including type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Consultation with a dietician on a frequent basis is helpful until just the right individualized program is established for each woman.

Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) contain a combination of hormones (estrogen and progesterone). Used properly, oral contraceptives can ensure that women with PCOS menstruate every four weeks. This, in turn, lowers the risk of endometrial cancer, which is higher in women with PCOS because they do not menstruate regularly and properly shed the endometrial lining.


Due to the high cost of the procedure, the need for hospitalization, general anesthesia and higher complications risks, ovarian drilling presents low cost effectiveness compared with gonadotropin plus timed intercourse. Moreover, the lack of standardization of the surgical technique and the absence of studies that have evaluated the repercussions of long-term of ovarian drilling demonstrate that this procedure should not be routinely performed but should only be considered as second line of therapy in women with PCOS who will be undergoing laparoscopy for another reason (adnexal mass or pelvic pain, for example). Additionally, ovarian drilling could be an alternative before the assisted reproduction treatment (ART) in individuals without financial conditions for the realization of ART and those who are resistant to CC.
This is a really big deal, because GnRH antagonist drugs are pretty common and used to treat some cancer. They are also part of the treatment for women with PCOS who are stimulating their ovaries for IVF and egg-freezing. This study suggests that we might be able to stop PCOS before it develops by treating pregnant women with this drug, and we can potentially use it to treat women who currently have PCOS. It is important to note that there are two commonly recognized types of PCOS, a lean phenotype and an obese phenotype. The authors explain that their mouse model most closely resemble the lean PCOS phenotype, so this treatment might not be able to help all women with PCOS. However, it is still an important step forward.
The second-line pharmacological treatment of infertility in anovulatory women with PCOS includes the use of gonadotropins [recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (FSHr) or human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG)] for timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination (IUI) 9. Due to the higher cost of this therapeutic modality, an evaluation of the tubal patency is recommended prior to initiating the ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins if this procedure was not performed prior to initiating CC treatment. If the fallopian tube is opened and the sperm concentration is suitable for in vivo fertilization, the ovarian stimulation begins with low doses of gonadotropins (37.5 to 75 IU/day or every other day) to achieve monofollicular growth and reduce the risk of complications (OHSS and multiple gestation) 25. US monitoring of the follicular growth (follicular diameter measurement) is mandatory in this case and the endogenous secretion of gonadotropins does not need to be inhibited with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRH-a) during the timed intercourse cycles. The administration of hCG (used to simulate the endogenous peak of luteinizing hormone for final oocyte maturation and ovulation triggering) is unnecessary because it does not increase the probability of conception during ovulation induction cycles for timed intercourse 21. It is important to note that if gonadotropin is chosen as the treatment option, the IUI has a higher likelihood of successful pregnancy compared with timed intercourse in patients with subfertility 26.
Mammalian ovary development undergoes important changes during the perinatal period, moment when follicles are assembled and start to develop in a process not well known, involving endocrine and paracrine factors. In order to investigate the effect of two different hormonal environments on the early development of the ovary, we used an autologous transplant model in which Syrian hamster fetal ovaries were grafted under the kidney capsule of males hosts previously unilaterally or bilaterally orchidectomized. After 35 days of graft, ovaries and kidney parenchyme of the host male did not present signs of rejection. Ovaries contained primordial, primary follicles, secondary follicles and few tertiary follicles with morphological features similar to ovaries of control females of 35 days of age. Healthy primary and secondary follicles of experimental groups had frequency distribution and size similar to control ovaries but tertiary follicles were scarce in control as well as in grafts where they were mainly atretic. PCNA, marker of proliferation, was immuno detected in granulosa cells of growing follicles and the marker of apoptosis, Caspase 3 active, was evident mainly in secondary follicles. Immunoreactivity for steroidogenic proteins, StAR, 3-βHSD and aromatase detected in the follicular wall cells and the decreased serum levels of FSH without important changes in testosterone in bilateral orchidectomized males that received ovarian graft, and testosterone decreased without changes in FSH levels in unilateral orchidectomized males (UO) with ovarian graft, all together suggest the effect of steroid hormones produced by the ovary. In conclusion, the experimental model of autologous transplant presents evidence of early ovary development under the kidney capsule and its functional integration to the endocrine axis of the host male.
Patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) who have impaired glucose tolerance should start a comprehensive program of diet and exercise to reduce their risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Encourage moderate physical activity, provided the patient has no contraindications. Discourage smoking because of the increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, obese women with PCOS can benefit from a low-calorie diet for weight reduction.
1. Steroid hormone concentration in sterilised and oophrectomised rats following exposure to Glycyrrhiza spp. (kanzo) [53]. 1. Single arm clinical trial investigating serum androgen concentration in healthy women aged 22–26, (n = 9) following administration of Glycyrrhiza spp. 7grams per day [55]. 1. Increased aromatisation of testosterone to 17 beta oestradiol shown by significantly dose dependent reduced testosterone and increased oestradiol [53].
I was diagnosed with pcos while using implanon birth control in November 2012. I was told it was che...mical, it was symptom and blood diagnosed not with cysts on my ovaries. My ob/gyn told me that implanon can cause pcos and many other terrible medical conditions. I had it removed in January 2013 and have been trying to get pregnant since, after being told I needed a hysterectomy. (I was 24). In the past year I have gotten pregnant twice, both ended with miscarriage. In January this year, I had my blood tested again and I am almost completely normal. I'll always have pcos, it's life long, but the fact that after a year of getting the implanon removed I was able to get my blood back to normal. My endocrinologist called it miraculous!
Following the electronic and manual searches of bibliographies, forty six clinical studies were identified for inclusion/exclusion assessment (Figure 1). A pre-requisite for the inclusion of clinical studies was identified laboratory evidence explaining the mechanism of effect in reproductive endocrinology. Fifteen met the inclusion criteria [54–68]. Eight were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) including 762 women [61–68] (Table 2). Thirty one studies were excluded for the following reasons; investigation of isolated herbal chemicals (n = 3); inclusion of male subjects (n = 4); no pre-clinical evidence (n = 11) and conditions different to those specified (n = 13).

This is a really big deal, because GnRH antagonist drugs are pretty common and used to treat some cancer. They are also part of the treatment for women with PCOS who are stimulating their ovaries for IVF and egg-freezing. This study suggests that we might be able to stop PCOS before it develops by treating pregnant women with this drug, and we can potentially use it to treat women who currently have PCOS. It is important to note that there are two commonly recognized types of PCOS, a lean phenotype and an obese phenotype. The authors explain that their mouse model most closely resemble the lean PCOS phenotype, so this treatment might not be able to help all women with PCOS. However, it is still an important step forward.

Preclinical and clinical studies provide preliminary evidence that six herbal medicines may have beneficial effects for women with oligo/amenorrhea, hyperandrogenism and PCOS. The quality of the evidence is variable and strongest for Vitex agnus-castus and Cimicifuga racemosa in the management of oligo/amenorrhea and infertility associated with PCOS; and Cinnamomum cassia for improving metabolic hormones in PCOS. Evidence for Tribulus terrestris, Glycyrrhiza spp. alone and in combination with Paeonia lactiflora and Paeonia lactiflora combined with Cinnamon cassia is promising but in an emergent phase. Further investigations into the mechanisms of effect for herbal extracts are needed to complete our understanding of the reproductive endocrinological effects for herbal medicine for these common conditions.

Second-line therapy, when clomiphene citrate fails to lead to pregnancy, is either exogenous gonadotropins or laparoscopic ovarian surgery. [2, 3] If gonadotropins are used, a low-dose regimen is recommended, [3] and patients must be monitored with ultrasonography and laboratory studies. [2] Note that gonadotropin therapy is expensive and is associated with an increased risk of multiple pregnancy and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. [2]
Oldfag from up top. Just saying yes, thank you and agreed. On all my medical paperwork it says that I have benzodiazepine dependency. I am physically dependent but I also function–I can work, I can manage my life. The thing that upsets me is that these days, I would never have been given benzos as the first med for my illness, I would have been given something that's less physically addictive and potentially dangerous. In the long term I believe benzos aren't good for you at all, and I'm certainly long term.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent, complex endocrine disorder characterised by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism leading to symptoms of irregular menstrual cycles, hirsutism, acne and infertility. Evidence based medical management emphasises a multidisciplinary approach for PCOS, as conventional pharmaceutical treatment addresses single symptoms, may be contra-indicated, is often associated with side effects and not effective in some cases. In addition women with PCOS have expressed a strong desire for alternative treatments. This review examines the reproductive endocrine effects in PCOS for an alternative treatment, herbal medicine. The aim of this review was to identify consistent evidence from both pre-clinical and clinical research, to add to the evidence base for herbal medicine in PCOS (and associated oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism) and to inform herbal selection in the provision clinical care for these common conditions.

meh. I think she takes selfies (including the body posi ones) because it helps her cultivate her image rather than because she thinks she's gorgeous. She's not like many of the other cows in that she doesn't try to hide her cellulite or mismatching eye sockets or her flab. Her imperfections feed into her junkie chic look, which is why calling them out every time she posts a picture ad nauseum doesn't make sense. She knows she has these features and doesn't seem to care, she mentions them herself, and she might even like how they fit into her style. She's totally comfortable with them and places a much higher importance on aesthetic than having a beautiful body.

There is growing evidence that mood disturbances, mostly severe depression, are common in PCOS women , in whom impaired quality of life from body image concerns cause fatigue, sleep disturbance and changes in eating habits. In addition, many PCOS patients report feeling abnormal, unfeminine, and embarrassed due to unwanted hair, often hiding their hair growth and covering their face when talking to others. Understanding how a woman feels about her body image and improving this perception are essential components of any management plan that provides overall health care to women with PCOS.


Side effects: There is no serious side effect associated with Gymnema as long as it is only used for less than about 2 years. This is not a long-term herbal solution to PCOS. It can affect blood sugar so people with diabetes should monitor their levels carefully when taking Gymnema. This herb is also not recommended for breastfeeding or pregnant women even though no complications have been documented.
The effectiveness of aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of PCOS remains controversial. A meta-analysis investigated 78 studies on the use of these medications in the infertility treatment of women with PCOS. Of these studies, 13 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Six studies compared the use of letrozole versus CC and found that letrozole presented with a higher ovulation rate/patient (OR 2.90; 95% CI: 1.72- 4.88; p<0.0001); however, no significant differences in the rate of ovulation per cycle or better pregnancy, live birth, multiple pregnancy or miscarriages rates were noted. Letrozole also did not obtain better results regarding clinical pregnancy or live birth rates compared with placebo or CC + metformin in women with CC-resistant PCOS. The results of the comparison of the effects of letrozole and anastrozole on ovulation and pregnancy rates in women with CC-resistant PCOS are controversial 41.

On February 28, 2012, the FDA approved important safety label changes for the class of cholesterol-lowering drugs known as statins, including removal of routine monitoring of liver enzymes. Information about the potential for generally nonserious and reversible cognitive side effects and reports of increased blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels was added to the statin labels. In addition, extensive contraindication and dose-limitation updates were added to the lovastatin label in situations when this drug is taken with certain medications that can increase the risk for myopathy. [63]
What you're talking about actually exists - it's called loperamide or Imodium, a widespread drug that exerts an effect only on the mu opioid receptors in the myenteric plexus. It cannot cross the blood-brain barrier. On the other hand, if you want an analgesic, you will have to cross the blood-brain barrier. With cannabinoles, you have different affinities and activities acting on different systems, while for an opioid analgesic the same process that gives the addictive rush. From a purely neurochemical perspective, the difference is that for cannabinoids, the addictive-euphoric and the pain-relieving effects take place on different receptors and it's possible to isolate cannabinoids that have no or little psychoactive effects while for opioids, the effect that gives pain relief is exactly the same as that responsible for addiction. Some opioids have a relatively slow absorption or they can be packaged as an extended release pill that keeps it from hitting the opioid receptors hard and fast. This will prevent it from having the addictive rush that causes compulsive redosing and addiction. But any systemically administered opioid that kills pain will also be at least a little addictive and euphoric. Hope that helps.

Many women with PCOS exhibit symptoms of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, risk factors that raise the risk for heart disease and other problems like diabetes and stroke. Low magnesium levels are often associated with diabetes, and some research indicates that a dietary supplement of the mineral may improve insulin sensitivity, a factor in the development of type 2 diabetes and PCOS. One study found that overweight, insulin-resistant subjects who received 300 mg of magnesium at bedtime showed a significant improvement in fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, compared to subjects who received a placebo.


Many health experts believe that numerous variables, including genetics, might be a factor in the development of PCOS. For example, you might find your sister, mother, aunt or grandmother has PCOS. It is clear that hormone imbalance is a primary influencing factor in PCOS as well as a condition called insulin resistance. Insulin is a potent hormone which is released by the pancreas as a result of food intake, in particular carbs. Insulin conveys sugar out from the blood and moves it into other cells such as muscle, liver and even fat cells. The sugar is then changed into energy or in some cases stored as fat. Sometimes this process is defective which is called insulin resistance.
Most women with PCOS have some degree of insulin resistance, weight gain, and abnormal blood lipid levels. However, insulin resistance tends to be even more pronounced in women who are obese and do not ovulate. These conditions put those with PCOS at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure (hypertension), and cardiovascular disease.
130mg of methadone?!!!! That's 520mg morphine. That's an insane dosage even for someone with tolerance - I have been on high dose opioids for pain for a decade and I'm scraping 250mg morphine equivalent dose. For context: the equivalent fentanyl patch would be 250mcg per hour strong. Even people with severe pain from tumours get by on no more than 100-150mcg per hour.
Los ovarios producen hormonas, que son sustancias químicas que controlan las funciones del organismo. Una de las hormonas que producen los ovarios es el estrógeno, a veces llamado "hormona femenina" porque el cuerpo de la mujer produce más cantidad que el cuerpo del hombre. Los ovarios también producen andrógenos, a veces llamados "hormonas masculinas" porque el cuerpo del hombre produce más cantidad que el cuerpo de la mujer. Sin embargo, tanto los hombres como las mujeres necesitan niveles determinados de ambas hormonas para tener una buena salud.
Wang et al. 2008 [66] Double blinded, placebo controlled randomised trial (pilot). Eight weeks. 15 overweight women with oligo/amenorrhoea and polycystic ovaries on ultrasound. Mean body mass index 28.8 ± 1.3 kg/m2. Mean age 31.1 ± 2.0 years Cinnamomum cassia extract 333 mg (Integrity Nutraceuticals International Sarasota, Florida) or placebo. One tablet three times per day. Primary outcomes: Insulin resistance and sensitivity. Secondary outcomes oestradiol and testosterone concentration. Body mass index (BMI). Before and after treatment comparisons between randomised groups plus comparison between treatment group and normal ovulatory, normal weight women. Adverse events. Improved insulin sensitivity (QUICKI) in the treatment group. 0.35 to 0.38, (7.7%) p < 0.03. Insulin resistance (HOMO-IR) significantly reduced in treatment group 2.57 to 1.43 (44.5%) p < 0.03. Controls no change insulin sensitivity or insulin resistance. No change in either group for BMI, testosterone and oestradiol. Differences between Cinnamomum cassia group and normal weight and ovulatory controls were not significant. (P < 0.17). No reported adverse reactions. Small pilot study, the authors report that larger studies are required to confirm findings. Small sample size may explain non-significant comparison with normal weight and ovulating women. Reproductive outcomes were unchanged in this study however the duration of the study was insufficient to demonstrate reproductive changes.
Hi dok bru.. Nabasa ko po mga message nyo.may gusto lng po ako e ask. I have pcos po and were trying na mgka baby kmi ng asawa ko. Folic acid at cristane sa asawa ko bingay ng obgyn nmin but after a year wla pa dn po. Sbi nila try ko daw mag antibirth pills at stop ko daw after a month daw para mbuntis daw po.Anu po maging epekto nun e di pa po ako naka try manganak. Hnd ko pa dn po na try takot po ko.thnx po
Oh FUCK no. Someone please let the woman know; it's a matter of saving an animal from a lifetime of misery and despair. Siamese cats are much harder to properly keep than the average housecat and needs a household where they'll be stimulated and properly trained so they don't get aggressive. There's no way two lazy dirty junkies could take care of one.

Disclosure: Eli Lilly & Co Grant/research funds Investigator; MacroGenics, Inc Grant/research funds Investigator; Ipsen, SA (formerly Tercica, Inc) Grant/research funds Investigator; NovoNordisk SA Grant/research funds Investigator; Diamyd Grant/research funds Investigator; Bristol-Myers-Squibb Grant/research funds Other; Amylin Other; Pfizer Grant/research funds Other; Takeda Grant/research funds Other
Although it has been known for many years that the ovary is innervated by catecholaminergic nerve fibers and much experimental evidence has strengthened the notion that catecholamines are physiologically involved in the control of ovarian function, scarce evidence has been presented as to the role of sympathetic activity in ovarian pathologies that affect reproductive function. The purpose of this article is to provide a succinct overview of the findings in this area and discuss them relative to the pathology of polycystic ovary syndrome, the most common ovarian pathology in women during their reproductive years.
Los complementos alimenticios no deben utilizarse como sustitutos de una dieta variada, equilibrada y de un estilo de vida saludable. No superar la dosis diaria recomendada. Si está  pensando en tomarlo consulte antes con su médico. Mantener fuera del alcance de los niños más pequeños. Conservar en un lugar fresco y seco, protegido de la luz solar y las fuentes de calor. Consumir preferentemente antes de la fecha indicada en el envase.
Surgery. Surgery is also an option, usually only if the other options do not work. The outer shell (called the cortex) of ovaries is thickened in women with PCOS and thought to play a role in preventing spontaneous ovulation. Ovarian drilling is a surgery in which the doctor makes a few holes in the surface of your ovary using lasers or a fine needle heated with electricity. Surgery usually restores ovulation, but only for 6 to 8 months.
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