When a woman isn’t ovulating regularly, the lining of her uterus (the endometrium) isn’t being exposed to the normal patterns of estrogen and progesterone. With no progesterone exposure, the lining won’t shed completely (when it sheds, that’s what women see as their period). “If this goes on, a woman can develop endometrial hyperplasia and even endometrial cancer,” she adds. (Endometrial hyperplasia is when the lining of the uterus is abnormally thick, most likely due to estrogen without progesterone exposure, and it can lead to uterine cancer.) (3)
The name ‘Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome’ points to the ovaries because it was long considered to be a reproductive issue. But it is now widely accepted that polycystic ovaries develop as a result of endocrine disorders characterized by a series of hormone imbalances: hyperandrogenism (specifically excess testosterone) and Insulin Resistance due to excess insulin that can trigger a cascade of other hormonal problems.4 From a systemic point of view, the continuing and/or increase of PCOS symptoms is likely due to a continuing hormonal imbalance.
Along with the hormonal imbalance and insulin resistance, Medling says that chronic, low-grade inflammation is the third player in the syndrome. (5) Follow an anti-inflammatory diet, which includes nutrient and fiber-rich produce that are low on the glycemic index (like apples and berries), grass-fed meats, organic poultry, as well as sources of omega-3s (like chia seeds and fatty fish) and avoids inflammatory, heavily processed foods, like french fries, potato chips, cake, and cookies. You’ll also want to keep track of foods that bother you (like if dairy gives you gas) and avoid those to help you feel better, she says. (6)
Other insulin sensitizing agents have been advocated and studied for the treatment of IR in PCOS, principally thiazolinediones. Thiazolinediones stimulate gene transcription that alters lipid and glucose metabolism, decreases lipolysis and decreases fat deposition[90]. Thiazolinediones decrease fatty acid release, suppress gluconeogenesis and reduce tumor necrosis factor α disruption of insulin activity[64]. Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone have decreased IR (measured by clamp studies) in PCOS women[90-93]. Glitazones have also decreased IR by OGTT AUC-Insulin in PCOS women[91,93,94]. In patients with DM, thiazolinediones reduce central adiposity[95], a trait commonly shared with PCOS women. Pioglitazone by way of IR and adiponectin levels also has improved menstrual regularity in PCOS women[96,97]. Adverse outcomes have been seen in pregnant animals with limited to no human data. Therefore, as a class, thiazolinediones are not considered first line therapy for PCOS women seeking pregnancy. Rosiglitazone has even been found to decrease pro-inflammatory markers in human granulosa cells cultured following in vitro fertilization oocyte retrieval, thus showing additional target tissue for therapy[98]. However, these effects have not been adequately studied and have no current practical application.
Contrary to the implication of “polycystic,” some women with the condition don’t have any cysts. A diagnosis requires only two of the following three criteria to be met: elevated levels of male sex hormones (which can cause excess hair growth, acne, and baldness), irregular or absent periods, and/or at least 12 follicular cysts on one or both ovaries.
“Don't just trust what the first doctor you see says without doing some research,” she says. “Find another woman with PCOS, go online to some of these support groups. Find a reproductive endocrinologist who knows what they're doing. Talk to other cysters, read the articles, look for doctor recommendations. We have a syndrome that is so complicated and confusing, one of the best ways we can help ourselves is to be proactive and make sure we find the best and most knowledgeable caregivers available to us.”
The effectiveness of aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of PCOS remains controversial. A meta-analysis investigated 78 studies on the use of these medications in the infertility treatment of women with PCOS. Of these studies, 13 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Six studies compared the use of letrozole versus CC and found that letrozole presented with a higher ovulation rate/patient (OR 2.90; 95% CI: 1.72- 4.88; p<0.0001); however, no significant differences in the rate of ovulation per cycle or better pregnancy, live birth, multiple pregnancy or miscarriages rates were noted. Letrozole also did not obtain better results regarding clinical pregnancy or live birth rates compared with placebo or CC + metformin in women with CC-resistant PCOS. The results of the comparison of the effects of letrozole and anastrozole on ovulation and pregnancy rates in women with CC-resistant PCOS are controversial 41.

Medical management of PCOS is aimed at the treatment of metabolic derangements, anovulation, hirsutism, and menstrual irregularity. The use of insulin-sensitizing drugs to improve insulin sensitivity is associated with a reduction in circulating androgen levels, as well as improvement in both the ovulation rate and glucose tolerance. [3] The Endocrine Society has published a clinical practice guideline on hirsutism evaluation and treatment in premenopausal women. [51] ACOG notes that eflornithine in conjunction with laser treatment is superior to laser therapy alone in treating hirsutism. [3]
Now, you can have temporal lobe epilepsy with only absence seizures, which are hard to distinguish from nodding off, besides, sea creature is out of it half the time so wouldn't notice anyway. Plus, the shitload of benzos she's taking might actually inhibit seizures. She might have had seizures she only registered as emotional changes, and started to self medicate with benzos,
The prevalence of insulin resistance in women with PCOS, as measured by impaired glucose tolerance, is substantially higher than expected compared with age-and weight-matched populations of women without PCOS.45 Although insulin resistance alone is a laboratory (not clinical) aberration, it can lead to diabetes, and it may be associated with the metabolic syndrome, thus leading to increased cardiovascular risk.2 As with diabetes, optimal treatment of PCOS requires lifestyle modifications (e.g., diet, exercise) in addition to appropriate medications.
there is no "trial" lmao. you would have flown out for nothing. it's a two minute thing, TOPS. he probably got appointed a public defender today. or maybe not even appointed one, just applied to be appointed one. the first or second time they just ask you to bring in paperwork proving you're poor and need a public defender. when you do get one, the lawyer just keeps adjourning it, like six or more times usually. then you're asked to get into a program or a detox or whatever. at the end he might get probation. each court appearance is less than 5 minutes long.
A case control study examining 100 infertile women with PCOS found that those who supplemented a daily 1500 mg dose of metformin, a medication commonly used to treat PCOS symptoms, with calcium and vitamin D saw improvements in BMI, menstrual abnormalities, and other symptoms. The women in the study added 1,000 mg of calcium a day and 100,000 IU of vitamin D a month to their daily metformin dose for six months.

From what I know, all women with PCOS don't have regular period at all! Those who were even trying to conceive needed to a tool to track their ovulation, most of my friends use a free bbt from cocneiveeasy. I have a friend who's trying for months now, unfortunately she has PCOS and still not pregnant, she's taking conceiveeasy along with Clomid now, I hope it works for her.
Positive effects for Vitex agnus-castus in oligo/amenorrhoea and infertility was demonstrated in three placebo controlled RCTs [61, 62, 64]. In a study including women with menstrual irregularity and infertility (n = 96), menstrual cyclicity was significantly improved for women treated with Vitex agnus-castus (Mastodynon® 30 drops per day for three months) compared to placebo (p = 0.023) [61] (Table 2). Another study, including women with sub fertility (n = 67), showed improved menstrual cyclicity for a sub-group of women with oligomenorrhoea following treatment with Vitex agnus-castus (Phyto-Hypophyson® 7.5 ml per day) compared to placebo, (p = 0.023) [62] (Table 2). A third study including women with hyperprolactinaemia (n = 37) demonstrated improved menstrual cyclicity by an increased average number of luteal days from 3.4 days (±5.0) to 10.5 days (±4.3) (p < 0.005) following treatment with Vitex agnus-castus (Strotan® 20 mg per day) for three months. The placebo group reported average number of days in the luteal phase was 3.4 (±5.1) at baseline and 5.5 (±5.2) at three months, which was not significant (p = 0.22) [64] (Table 2). Methodological shortcomings included not reporting baseline characteristics for subgroups and small sample sizes; however clinical outcomes demonstrated physiological effects consistent with laboratory and animal findings (Tables 1 and ​and22).
Some have tried to utilize ultrasound to detect IR. Of note, normoglycemic women often have the phenotypic criteria for polycystic ovaries on ultrasound[54], consistent with other data in young adolescents showing that polycystic ovaries by ultrasound appearance often does not correlate with either anovulatory menstrual cycles or metabolic abnormalities[55]. Therefore ultrasound is too non-specific to use with any reliability in measuring IR.
Physicians and scientists at UChicago Medicine are also actively pursuing additional solutions for treating PCOS through ongoing clinical trials. In addition, we maintain a current database of more than 700 patients with PCOS. This helps us to monitor progress and changes that may occur over many years of treatment and identify new trends in the disease.
Los andrógenos son un tipo de hormona (mensajero químico del cuerpo); a menudo se denominan hormonas “masculinas”, pero el cuerpo de la mujer también produce y usa algunas de estas hormonas. Las niñas y las mujeres con PCOS generalmente tienen niveles más elevados de andrógenos de lo normal. Estas elevaciones pueden ocasionar ciertos cambios en el cuerpo como:
Cinnamon cassia One animal study compared the effectiveness of Cinnamomum cassia with metformin against controls in rats with PCOS. Hormone concentration was measured at 15 and 30 days [48] One pilot RCT demonstrated positive effects for metabolic parameter’s (HOMO and QUICKI) for Cinnamomum cassia in overweight women with PCOS [66] 1. Equivalence for metformin for reduced testosterone in PCOS [48]
Not necessarily. I've been on Benzos off and on since I was 13 (12 years) for panic attacks, social anxiety, etc. and I'm fine. There are also Benzos that give less of that 'floaty feeling' like Ativan. Not to start a discussion about what addiction is or isn't but I think how a drug makes you think and feel and want is completely personal and genetic.
Cinnamon cassia One animal study compared the effectiveness of Cinnamomum cassia with metformin against controls in rats with PCOS. Hormone concentration was measured at 15 and 30 days [48] One pilot RCT demonstrated positive effects for metabolic parameter’s (HOMO and QUICKI) for Cinnamomum cassia in overweight women with PCOS [66] 1. Equivalence for metformin for reduced testosterone in PCOS [48]
In addition to assessing signs and symptoms of PCOS, medical providers take a medical history, perform a physical exam, and check blood hormone levels (including testosterone). They may also perform an ovarian ultrasound. Other tests looking for complication of PCOS may also be done, such as glucose tolerance test or a mental health screening survey. 
The restaurant, bar and lounge AQUA LUNA is on the bank of the river Daugava in the Andrejsala area of central Riga, and is the ideal place to enjoy nature, a calm atmosphere, great food and good music – just a few steps away from the vibrant city centre. Come for a business lunch or dinner in the restaurant, and enjoy some of our original cocktails in the bar or the aroma of oriental hookahs on the summer terrace. On weekends AQUA LUNA welcomes you for party evenings with a great music selection from the best local musicians and DJs as well as special international guests.
she's only playing dress up as a heroin addict because she knows she always has a safety net. those are the kids that go the hardest, the ones that are so privileged they think nothing really bad is ever going to happen to them. but she's already ruined her appearance and job opportunities, so i don't know where this weird superiority complex for being "poor" comes from? even if her daddy does save her she can't just get a top notch face lift like courtney love. no one cares. she's already so fucked and doesn't know it.

Jump up ^ Li, X.-J.; Yu, Y.-X.; Liu, C.-Q.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, H.-J.; Yan, B.; Wang, L.-Y.; Yang, S.-Y.; Zhang, S.-H. (March 2011). "Metformin vs thiazolidinediones for treatment of clinical, hormonal and metabolic characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis". Clinical Endocrinology. 74 (3): 332–339. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2010.03917.x. ISSN 1365-2265. PMID 21050251.

To be quite precise (Gastroenterofag here): opioids do slow the metabolism and make you crave sugary crap. Weight gain versus loss depends on whether the dose is high enough to actually be too fucked up most of the day to eat (that's why virtually all thin heroin users who go on methadone or subutex end up ballooning: they're no longer taking astronomical doses of opioids that make them too zonked out to eat, as the cross tolerance allows us to give them about 40% less of the equianalgesic dose). Sage for medfagging.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent hormonal and metabolic disorder among reproductive aged women worldwide. Women with PCOS have widely varying phenotypes and seek medical care for differing reasons. In addition to concern for menstrual cycle function, ovulation, hirsutism and acne, many PCOS women have abnormal glucose metabolism. While diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance are easily diagnosed, the diagnosis of and concern for insulin resistance as a precursor disorder is underappreciated. Insulin resistance may be the first important marker of metabolic disease in PCOS women at risk for metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease.
The Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Society recommends lifestyle management as the primary therapy for metabolic complications in overweight and obese women with PCOS. [67] A moderate amount of daily exercise increases levels of IGF-1 binding protein and decreases levels of IGF-1 by 20%. Modest weight loss of 2-5% of total body weight can help restore ovulatory menstrual periods in obese patients with PCOS. A decrease of 500-1000 calories daily, along with 150 minutes of exercise per week, can cause ovulation.
As many as 70% of PCOS women are insulin resistant and 10% have DM[20-22]. In PCOS women with normal glucose metabolism initially, the rate of conversion to abnormal glucose metabolism can be 25% over just three years[23]. More alarming, insulin abnormalities are highly prevalent in adolescents with PCOS[24]. Almost 20% of young Thai women with PCOS actually have DM[25]. Overall, normal glucose levels on an OGTT do not predict IR and IR, despite normal glucose levels, is correlated with CRP, dyslipidemia and other CAD risk factors[26]. Therefore, glucose levels alone lack the sensitivity to predict metabolic risk in PCOS patients. Precursor states of insulin abnormalities likely predict long term CAD risk well before glucose abnormalities. IR can be just as severe in diabetics and non-diabetics[27], stressing the seriousness of this metabolic impairment as a precursor and not a separate disease. Animal models have shown that IR alone damages myocardial cells, providing direct evidence of end organ disease[28]. Human data link HOMA-IR to left ventricular dysfunction[29]. Abnormal glucose metabolism short of IGT and DM still deserves attention, identification and treatment[30].
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Bilang kababaihan edad, iba't-ibang mga genetic at hormonal disorder nakakaapekto sa kanilang buhay at kalusugan. Isa tulad ng hormonal kawalan ng timbang na may kaugnayan disorder na nakakaapekto sa mga kababaihan ay Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). Sa ganitong syndrome, dahil sa isang kawalan ng timbang sa mga reproductive hormones, likido-punong cysts punan ang obaryo. Ang mga obaryo makakuha pinalaki at itigil ang gumagana nang normal (1, 2).

A secondary analysis of two randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trials that included 182 children of mothers with PCOS reported that children exposed to metformin had higher BMI and increased prevalence of overweight/obesity at 4 years of age. The study found that at 4 years of age, the metformin group had higher weight z-score than the placebo group; difference in means 0.38 (0.07 to 0.69), p=0.017, and higher BMI z-score; difference in means 0.45 (0.11 to 0.78), p=0.010. There were also more overweight/obese children in the metformin group; 26 (32%) than in the placebo group; 14 (18%) at 4 years of age; odds ratio (95% CI): 2.17 (1.04 to 4.61), p=0.038. More studies are needed to examine this association. [94]
Gud pm po ask q lng po nung nanganak po kc aq nbinat aq sumakit po ang kaliwang tagiliran q nung ngpachekup po aq ang sv my ovarian cyst dw po aq peru wla aman po aq ibng naramdaman kundi mskt pag malamig lng at pag mlapit na mens q pumipitik po ‘ang sv ng ob .dudurugen lng dw po peru wla naman xa nreseta skn .mula po nun lage nq nakukunan bago 2muntong ng 2 muntz . Anu po kya ang pwd q gawen at inumen .pag mlameg po msaket sv aman po ng ibng doktor ugat lng dw po na namaga s bndang ovary need dw po ilaser …anu po maipapayo nyo tnx

Polycystic ovary syndrome and fertility: What you need to know PCOS is a disorder in which small fluid-filled cysts form in the ovaries. This leads to an imbalance in female sex hormones, with symptoms such as male-pattern hair growth and irregular periods. It can also affect fertility. Tips and treatment for fertility problems include diet, stress reduction, and medical help. Read now


Wang et al. 2008 [66] Double blinded, placebo controlled randomised trial (pilot). Eight weeks. 15 overweight women with oligo/amenorrhoea and polycystic ovaries on ultrasound. Mean body mass index 28.8 ± 1.3 kg/m2. Mean age 31.1 ± 2.0 years Cinnamomum cassia extract 333 mg (Integrity Nutraceuticals International Sarasota, Florida) or placebo. One tablet three times per day. Primary outcomes: Insulin resistance and sensitivity. Secondary outcomes oestradiol and testosterone concentration. Body mass index (BMI). Before and after treatment comparisons between randomised groups plus comparison between treatment group and normal ovulatory, normal weight women. Adverse events. Improved insulin sensitivity (QUICKI) in the treatment group. 0.35 to 0.38, (7.7%) p < 0.03. Insulin resistance (HOMO-IR) significantly reduced in treatment group 2.57 to 1.43 (44.5%) p < 0.03. Controls no change insulin sensitivity or insulin resistance. No change in either group for BMI, testosterone and oestradiol. Differences between Cinnamomum cassia group and normal weight and ovulatory controls were not significant. (P < 0.17). No reported adverse reactions. Small pilot study, the authors report that larger studies are required to confirm findings. Small sample size may explain non-significant comparison with normal weight and ovulating women. Reproductive outcomes were unchanged in this study however the duration of the study was insufficient to demonstrate reproductive changes.
Hi doc..may katanungan lang po sana ako.last year na diagnosed po na may PCOS ako,pro bago po madiagnosed un,3 months po ako dinudugo(ireg po ang period ko simula ng nag trabaho ako sa call center) kaya kala ko ok lng po un dahil sanay naman po ako na ireg kaya pinabayaan ko po ung 3 months na pag dudugo.naalarma lang po ako at nagpatingin sa ob dahil ung pang 3rd moth ng pag durugo,sjmobra na po ang lakas na pakiramdam ko po ay mauubusan ako ng dugo sa lakas at geabe po ang buo buo.dun po mag decide ako magpatingin agad ako pina transvaginal ng doctor,dun po lumabas na my pcos ako,at bukod po doon,sobrang kapal na po mg lining ng matres ko at nsa result din po nakalagay na rinerefer na po ako sa endocrinologist.pero ang ginawa po ng ob ko is pinainom ako ng provera at ipinaliwanag ang pcos at ung tungkol sa kapal ng lining ng matresko.nabahala po ako dahil sabi po sa akin,kelngan daw po ako raspahin dahil sa kapal nito.pro neg refuse din po ung ob ko gwn ung procedure na un dhl daw po wla pa po akong amak at asawa.kya,provera at after ng provera,althea pills lng po ang iniinom ko.ang tanong ko lng po doc,posible po ba na normal na ang matres ko dahil 1 year mhgit ndn po mula ng ngng ok ang period ko dahil sa pills?kung hindi po,ano po ba ang maipapayo nyo na gawin ko doc?nag babasa basa po kc ako,high risk dw po sa endometrial cancer ang gmitong case.by d way po doc,26 years old po ako.salamat po at sna masagot nyo po ako.Godbless
I don't want to be a cow thank you. No, I'm not naturally ginger. My friend was on my account last night taking the piss. I've deleted the comments because I'm not a cunt who comments horrible things on people's profiles. We was talking about Luna because I found this thread. I don't even know what the comments meant myself, I was confused. So yeah, say what youse like I'm not really arsed.
PCOS women with different phenotypes have been found similarly insulin resistant in response to a 3 h 75 g OGTT[31]. Obese (compared to lean) PCOS women tend to have a higher degree of IR. Correlation between hyperandrogenism and IR is significant in many studies but not as significant as the link between insulin abnormalities and obesity[32]. PCOS women demonstrate greater variation in insulin parameters compared to controls, independent of weight[33]. Animal studies of prenatal testosterone exposure show downstream IR in early postnatal life[34]. Some human data shows a high degree of correlation between hyperandrogenism and IR[35,36] and the relationship between hyperandrogenism and IR seem to differ between PCOS and non-PCOS women[35].
What matters most: Your goal when losing weight is to aim specifically to reduce the fat around your abdomen (belly fat). This requires boosting your metabolism like women who had PCOS did in an Italian weight loss study.7 Those who rode exercise bikes for 30 minutes, three times a week, lost more abdominal fat than those who shed pounds by just eating less.7 You won’t be successful if you only change your diet. More women in the exercise group than the diet group began ovulating even though both groups lost similar amounts of weight.7
Habang remedyo sa bahay ay maaaring maging isang mahusay na pagpipilian para sa paggamot ng PCOS, naghahanap ng medikal na tulong ay din napakahalaga sa karamihan ng mga oras. Makipag-usap sa iyong doktor tungkol sa iyong mga plano upang bigyan ng bahay remedyong subukan mo upang ang mga pinakamahusay na posibleng mga kumbinasyon ng paggamot ay maaaring devised para sa iyo. Gayundin, PCOS ay madalas na nauugnay sa isang hindi malusog lifestyle at diyeta. Para sa ito, kami ay compiled ng isang listahan ng mga maingat mga panukala na maaari mong sundin upang labanan ang kundisyong ito.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent hormonal and metabolic disorder among reproductive aged women worldwide. Women with PCOS have widely varying phenotypes and seek medical care for differing reasons. In addition to concern for menstrual cycle function, ovulation, hirsutism and acne, many PCOS women have abnormal glucose metabolism. While diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance are easily diagnosed, the diagnosis of and concern for insulin resistance as a precursor disorder is underappreciated. Insulin resistance may be the first important marker of metabolic disease in PCOS women at risk for metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease.
Preclinical and clinical studies provide preliminary evidence that six herbal medicines may have beneficial effects for women with oligo/amenorrhea, hyperandrogenism and PCOS. The quality of the evidence is variable and strongest for Vitex agnus-castus and Cimicifuga racemosa in the management of oligo/amenorrhea and infertility associated with PCOS; and Cinnamomum cassia for improving metabolic hormones in PCOS. Evidence for Tribulus terrestris, Glycyrrhiza spp. alone and in combination with Paeonia lactiflora and Paeonia lactiflora combined with Cinnamon cassia is promising but in an emergent phase. Further investigations into the mechanisms of effect for herbal extracts are needed to complete our understanding of the reproductive endocrinological effects for herbal medicine for these common conditions.
Chromium ay naroroon sa katawan ng tao sa minimal na halaga, at ito Pinahuhusay ang kakayahan upang magbabad insulin. Ang isang babae na apektado ng PCOS ay maaaring maging lumalaban sa insulin, at maaari niyang harapin ang sitwasyong ito sa pamamagitan ng ubos na pagkain na naglalaman ng kromo. Ilang mga halimbawa ay ang broccoli, red wine, at berde beans. Maaari ka ring kumuha chromium supplement.
Clomid Active ingredient: clomiphene $0.44 for pill Clomid is a fertility drug, used to stimulate FSH and LH production and hereby the ovaries to produce eggs in ovarian disorders. Metformin Active ingredient: metformin $0.26 for pill Metformin is a biguanide anti-diabetic that works by decreasing the amount of sugar that the liver produces and the intestines absorb.

“When any condition crosses disciplines and doesn’t have a full investment in [one of them], it often falls through the cracks. There are elements of reproduction in PCOS, but most reproductive endocrinologists mostly do in-vitro fertilization and are not necessarily interested in metabolism. Medical endocrinologists, who are mostly interested in metabolism, aren’t usually interested in reproduction and ovarian function,” Dumesic said.


When a woman is not menstruating or ovulating, an insufficient amount of the hormone progesterone is produced. This hormonal imbalance can lead to an overgrowth of the lining of the uterus (endometrial hyperplasia) and can increase a woman's risk of developing endometrial cancer. Women with PCOS who do ovulate and become pregnant tend to have an increased risk of complications such as miscarriage.
Jump up ^ Wang, F.-F.; Wu, Y.; Zhu, Y.-H.; Ding, T.; Batterham, R. L.; Qu, F.; Hardiman, P. J. (2018-07-31). "Pharmacologic therapy to induce weight loss in women who have obesity/overweight with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and network meta-analysis". Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. doi:10.1111/obr.12720. ISSN 1467-789X. PMID 30066361.
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