There is no specific test that can be used to diagnose polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and there is no widespread agreement on what the diagnostic criteria should be. A health practitioner will typically evaluate a combination of clinical findings such as a woman's signs and symptoms, medical and family history, and physical exam as well as laboratory test results to help make a diagnosis.
Androgens. All females make androgens (also referred to as “male hormones”), but there are often higher levels of androgens in women with PCOS. The excess androgens are produced mostly by the ovaries, but the adrenal glands can also be involved. Excess androgens are responsible for many PCOS symptoms including acne, unwanted hair, thinning hair, and irregular periods.
Ito ay maaaring dumating sa buong bilang isang paghahayag para sa iyo-bitamina D ay mahalaga para sa pinakamainam na sistemang pangreproduksiyon sa mga kababaihan. Ito ay gumaganap ng pangunahing papel sa iba't-ibang mga ovarian proseso at ay nakakaapekto rin sa asukal homeostasis. Sa mga kababaihan na may PCOS, tungkol sa 65 - 85% ng mga ito magdusa mula sa isang kakulangan ng bitamina D. Supplementation sa bitamina D (at kaltsyum) ay maaaring kontrolin ang metabolic at reproductive proseso at muling itaguyod ang panregla kaayusan at obulasyon (4). Kumuha ng sinubok para sa bitamina D mga antas sa iyong katawan at simulan ang supplements sa lalong madaling panahon kung ang iyong mga suwero mga antas ng bitamina na ito ay mababa.

A veces los síntomas del SOP son claros, a veces son menos obvios. Quizás visite a un dermatólogo (médico de la piel) por acné o crecimiento del vello, a un ginecólogo (médico que trata las afecciones médicas de las mujeres y de los órganos reproductivos femeninos) por periodos mensuales irregulares y a su médico de familia por aumento de peso, sin darse cuenta de que todos los síntomas son parte del SOP. Algunas mujeres con SOP tendrán solo un síntoma; otras los tendrán todos. Las mujeres de todas las razas y grupos étnicos pueden presentar SOP.
This is a really big deal, because GnRH antagonist drugs are pretty common and used to treat some cancer. They are also part of the treatment for women with PCOS who are stimulating their ovaries for IVF and egg-freezing. This study suggests that we might be able to stop PCOS before it develops by treating pregnant women with this drug, and we can potentially use it to treat women who currently have PCOS. It is important to note that there are two commonly recognized types of PCOS, a lean phenotype and an obese phenotype. The authors explain that their mouse model most closely resemble the lean PCOS phenotype, so this treatment might not be able to help all women with PCOS. However, it is still an important step forward.
Many doctors prescribe the drug metformin to help regulate the amount of glucose in the blood. The medication is traditionally used to treat Type 2 diabetes, as it makes the body more sensitive to insulin, and decreases the amount of glucose the liver releases. A meta-analysis published online in June in the journal Human Reproductive Update demonstrated that when metformin is combined with lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise, it has been shown to help women with PCOS lose more body fat, achieve lower blood sugar, and improve menstruation better than lifestyle modification alone.
PCOS ay nagpapahiwatig sub-optimal gumagana ng reproductive organo. Kathang isip ng isang bata ay itinuturing na mahirap na sa ilalim ng gayong mga kalagayan. At kahit na kung ang babae ay maglihi, mga pagkakataon ng mga komplikasyon ng pagbubuntis at paghahatid ay mataas. Pagkalaglag, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, at preterm kapanganakan ay napaka-pangkaraniwan. Wastong pag-aalaga at tamang gamot ay maaaring makatulong sa pagbubuntis upang maging isang makinis na paglalakbay. Kumonsulta sa iyong doktor kung ikaw ay nagpaplanong magbuntis at sundin ang kanyang / ang kanyang mga rekomendasyon mabuti.
However, in women with PCOS receiving low doses of gonadotropins for timed intercourse, metformin administration can double the clinical pregnancy rate (OR 2.25; 95% CI: 1.50 to 3.38; p<0.001; 7 trials) and the live birth rate (OR 1.94; 95% CI: 1.10 to 3.44; p=0.020; 2 trials). Moreover, this practice can reduce the cancellation rate due to ovarian hyperresponsiveness by approximately 60% (OR 0.41; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.72; p=0.002; 7 trials), the number of days of stimulation (mean difference (MD)=-3.28; 95% CI: -6.23 to 0.32; p=0.030; 6 trials) and the dose of gonadotropins (MD=-306.62; 95% CI: -500.02 to -113.22; p=0.002; 7 trials) in low-complexity cycles. However, the use of metformin is not related to a reduction in the multiple pregnancy rate (OR 0.32; 95% CI: 0.08 to 1.23; p=0.100; 3 trials), a change in the miscarriage rate (OR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.14 to 1.54; p=0.210; 5 trials) or OHSS (OR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.26 to 1.21; p=0.140; 5 trials). Notably, no conclusive data are available on the appropriate dose and time (pre-treatment or during gonadotropin treatment) for the use of metformin during timed intercourse with gonadotropins 37.
Nope, it was definitely her, I can't forget it. On tumblr sometime earlier last year she kept posting these depressed frantic posts about that sad disgusting old crackhead guy she loves so much and is like her only family. hes always so sick and slowly dying, she felt responsible for not being able to provide for or truly help him like he "helped" her (i suspect he just gives her drugs). there was a pic of the ambulance, her crying in the ER, and the huge bill and everything. she deleted everything within hours of posting, I guessed it was the embarrassment, but those went around in reblogs for a long time. She's always covered in a layer of filth and on her tumblr there was a pic of her doing drugs outside in the winter wearing a holey mini skirt with freshly open track marks on a swingset with a caption like "I can't even get high anymore but I'm scared withdrawal would kill me". It just made me wanna cry and I gave her the $5 even though I knew she would just use it for more drugs. Is that enabling?

Dr. Victor Luna completed his medical education at Escuela Autonoma de Ciencias Medicas de Centroamerica in San Jose, Costa Rica. He then participated in an internship at LSU Health Science Center where he later completed his residency in Internal Medicine where he served as the chief resident for his final year. Dr. Luna continued his education by completing a fellowship at University of South Florida.

Two laboratory based RCT’s examined the effects of Tribulus Terrestris in rats with polycystic ovaries induced with oestradiol valerate [46, 47] (Table 1). Both studies demonstrate significantly improved ovulation rates for animals treated with two doses of Tribulus terrestris extracts compared to controls. Although the endocrinological effects were not described in either study, laboratory findings of ovulation induction are supported by the clinical findings of elevated FSH following treatment with Tribulus terrestris[56] (Table 2).

Evidence for Tribulus terrestris, Glycyrrhiza spp. alone and in combination with Paeonia lactiflora and Paeonia lactiflora with Cinnamomum cassia was limited by the volume of laboratory and animal studies, with only one to two studies found for each herb or herbal combination. There was supporting clinical data, however many were small single arm, open label studies measuring endocrine effects in healthy women. Evidence for these herbal medicines is preliminary and in an emergent phase.

Bilang kababaihan edad, iba't-ibang mga genetic at hormonal disorder nakakaapekto sa kanilang buhay at kalusugan. Isa tulad ng hormonal kawalan ng timbang na may kaugnayan disorder na nakakaapekto sa mga kababaihan ay Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). Sa ganitong syndrome, dahil sa isang kawalan ng timbang sa mga reproductive hormones, likido-punong cysts punan ang obaryo. Ang mga obaryo makakuha pinalaki at itigil ang gumagana nang normal (1, 2).
PCOS is associated with multiple metabolic defects, including metabolic syndrome. Twice as many women with PCOS have metabolic syndrome as in the general population, and about one-half of women with PCOS are obese.1,9 The presence of PCOS is also associated with a fourfold increase in the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.10 There is an increased prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,11,12 sleep apnea,13 and dyslipidemia14 in patients with PCOS, even when controlled for body mass index. Rates of cardiovascular disease are higher in patients with PCOS, but increased cardiovascular mortality has not been consistently demonstrated.15,16 Finally, there is evidence to suggest an increased risk of mood disorders among patients with PCOS.17,18
Weight loss is also a key first step if you’re planning a pregnancy. It may improve your ability to get pregnant by restoring ovulation3 or make your body more responsive to fertility treatments if that is what is determined you need. In fact, up to 75 percent of women with PCOS who were able to reduce their body weight also had better glucose control and improved androgen hormone levels, helping to restore ovulation and fertility,2,3 experts say.  
Disclosure: Eli Lilly & Co Grant/research funds Investigator; MacroGenics, Inc Grant/research funds Investigator; Ipsen, SA (formerly Tercica, Inc) Grant/research funds Investigator; NovoNordisk SA Grant/research funds Investigator; Diamyd Grant/research funds Investigator; Bristol-Myers-Squibb Grant/research funds Other; Amylin Other; Pfizer Grant/research funds Other; Takeda Grant/research funds Other
Agreed, sounds like a bunch of insecure teenagers trying to tear people down for things they can't help so they can feel better about their own misshapen bodies. Luna is shitty enough of her own accord; no need to get all up in arms over things that she has no control over when she doesn't even pretend to be a flawless aphrodite like many of the cows here. It's just self-serving tryhardery at that point.

Skin Conditions: Very frustrating for many women with this disorder, skin conditions are difficult to hide and can on occasion be painful. From mild to severe acne to the development of skin tags, skin conditions caused by Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) can be both a nuisance and an embarrassment. Additionally, women with PCOS can experience acanthosis nigricans, which is the development of dark, thick, almost velvet-like skin in several places on the body.2
When a woman isn’t ovulating regularly, the lining of her uterus (the endometrium) isn’t being exposed to the normal patterns of estrogen and progesterone. With no progesterone exposure, the lining won’t shed completely (when it sheds, that’s what women see as their period). “If this goes on, a woman can develop endometrial hyperplasia and even endometrial cancer,” she adds. (Endometrial hyperplasia is when the lining of the uterus is abnormally thick, most likely due to estrogen without progesterone exposure, and it can lead to uterine cancer.) (3)
Pharmaceutical treatment for menstrual irregularity includes the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) and ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate (clomiphene) [20, 21] depending on fertility needs. Women with PCOS are however likely to exhibit contraindications for the OCP [3] and whilst induction of ovulation with clomiphene has demonstrated success, pregnancy rates remain inexplicably low [4]. Up to thirty 30% of women, particularly overweight women with PCOS, fail to respond to clomiphene therapy [4, 22, 23]. Management for hyperandrogenism includes anti-androgens and hypoglycaemic pharmaceuticals such as metformin [24]. Metfomin has demonstrated effectiveness for improving insulin sensitivity and hyperandrogenism, however use of metformin is associated with the high incidence of adverse effects including nausea, vomiting and gastro-intestinal disturbances [5].
Janis King graduated cum laude from Florida State University in 2009 with a Bachelor of Science in Nursing and worked as a registered nurse in medical-surgical nursing and critical care. She earned her Doctor of Nursing Practice from Florida State University in 2013 and has since been working in Endocrinology following graduation.  Janis is bilingual and fluent in the Spanish language as well.
A 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test can be easily performed to assess the risk of diabetes in a PCOS woman. If necessary, prevention of diabetes may require lifestyle management with weight loss, diet and exercise, and possibly the addition of insulin-sensitizing agents such as metformin, or other medications. Fasting lipid measurements in the blood also can be performed to predict the risk for future cardiovascular disease and may likewise require lifestyle management, along with oral statins and other medications to correct increased triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels and/or decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels.
PCOS is genetic and presents differently in each woman of childbearing age. For some women, symptoms emerge shortly after they begin menstruating. Others may not show signs of the disorder until later in life, or after substantial weight gain, and many don’t receive a diagnosis until they are struggling to get pregnant. A community-based prevalence study published in 2010 found that approximately 70 percent of the 728 women in the cohort had PCOS, but had no pre-existing diagnosis.  
Es posible que el médico pida análisis de sangre de niveles hormonales, colesterol o glucosa (azúcar) en la sangre. A veces, los médicos hacen un examen pélvico o piden exámenes de ultrasonido (con imágenes) de los ovarios y el útero. Este tipo de prueba puede mostrar si usted tiene quistes ováricos, que son burbujas llenas de líquido dentro o fuera de los ovarios. Su médico se asegurará de que no existan otras causas de períodos irregulares o alteraciones en el nivel hormonal.

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Once a diagnosis of PCOS is confirmed, it is imperative to assess women for CAD risk factors. Despite the many reasons women seek medical care for PCOS, the greatest long term risk for these women is CAD. This is generally not viewed or even recognized as a concern by women seeking care in the first place. The link between PCOS and CAD is multi-faceted. C-reactive protein (CRP) is higher in age matched PCOS women and is linked to BMI[10] with some ethnic variation in this risk[11]. The prevalence of MS in PCOS women is as high as 40% with increased prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia and abnormal glucose metabolism, all before age 30[12]. PCOS women aged 20-40 already demonstrate poor vascular function measured by brachial artery vascular flow[13]. No single blood test can predict or quantify this CAD risk. Although no standard recommendation for assessment of CAD risk factors exists, measurement of glucose metabolism, blood pressure screening, lipid screening and carotid intimal media thickness measurements have been suggested[14].
Doc magandang araw po datI na po aqu nagpatingin sa OBY. GYNE Niresetahan aqu ng OBY q ng gracial fill at provic acid para daw po yun maging regular ang dugo q. Pero d q po na tapos yung medicin.. ok na man po yun gamot kc n regla po aqu… after po nun nag punta aqu sa kuwait almost two years po aqu hindi n regla medyu tumaas din po ang timbang q ano po vahang dapat q gawi?
Tu médico o un nutricionista titulado puede ver lo que comes y tu nivel de ejercicio y de actividad física a fin de diseñar un programa para perder peso hecho a tu medida. El ejercicio es una gran forma de combatir el aumento de peso que suele acompañar al síndrome de ovario poliquístico, así como una forma de reducir la hinchazón, otro de los síntomas que a veces experimentan las chicas que padecen esta afección.
i would suggest researching a bit online. but from my experience working in treatment centers yes, meth has foul chemicals. when they first come in and are detoxing from it addicts smell like chemical and ammonia. there are so many foul and unnatural things in it it reeks havoc on the human body. i know she mentioned crack but i don't think we have any real proof luna has ever used meth.
OGTT with 75-g glucose and hourly glucose and insulin measurements has been compared to clamp techniques. Insulin sensitivity calculated by mathematical transformation of measurements has shown good correlation with glucose disposal using clamp techniques[48]. Although the OGTT is easy to perform, these calculations are more complex and make this particular calculation less desirable for clinical use. However these data show that 1 and 2 h levels are often needed to diagnose IR and stress the potential for false negative results with fasting measurements alone. In patients undergoing clamp and OGTT no correlation was observed between fasting glucose/insulin ratios and IR on the clamp[48].
May mga kababaihan na hindi naman nababagay sa oral contraceptive pills na may magkasamang estrogen at progestin. Ang alternatibong reseta ng doktor dito ay progesterone (tulad ng Provera).  Ito ay iniinom sa sampu hanggang labing-apat na araw kada isa hanggang tatlong buwan. Nakakatulong ito para magkaregla ang babae para maiwasan ang kanser sa lining ng matres (endometrial cancer) pero walang epekto ito sa taghiyawat at sobrang buhok. Puwede ring mabuntis kung ito ang iniinom na gamot.
my experiences of being arrested for heroin were in manhattan and nassau county, not the bronx but I'm sure it's the same out there. there are so many heroin arrests & arrests in general in metro NY. possession just isn't important, especially since Lurch doesn't have any open cases besides that one. they would never take something like that to trial.
Complementary medicine (CM) use by women has increased during the past ten years [7–11] with rates of use ranging between 26% and 91% [8, 9]. One of the popular types of CM is herbal medicine [11, 12]. Herbal medicines are known to contain pharmacologically active constituents with physiological effects on female endocrinology and have been positively associated with reduced incidences of breast cancer, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease [13–18].
MRI (or magnetic resonance imaging) scan is a radiology technique which uses magnetism, radio waves, and a computer to produce images of body structures. MRI scanning is painless and does not involve X-ray radiation. Patients with heart pacemakers, metal implants, or metal chips or clips in or around the eyes cannot be scanned with MRI because of the effect of the magnet.
This is A LOT of benzodiazepines. I remember the last batch she got too, and it wasn't that long ago. She's using more than I am, and I'm using them legally for a partial spinal cord injury. The FUCK, Luna. Being dependant on heroin isn't enough for you or something? This bothers me more than the heroin, honestly. The withdrawal from benzos can actually kill you, unlike heroin. Not to mention that using multiple CNS depressants together is dangerous af. Narcan won't bring you back from that shit.
Kung gusto naman uminom ng gamot kasabay ang PCOS natural treatment na nabanggit, mayroon ring pwedeng ireseta ang doktor. Malamang, magbibigay siya ng contraceptives o birth control pills. Ang gamot na ito ay may lamang estrogen at progestin, kaya dadami ang female hormones sa katawan habang kakaunti ang male hormones. Makakatulong ang birth control pills hindi lamang sa pagiging regular ng dalas at dami ng pagregla, kung hindi pati na rin sa pagbabawas ng excessive bleeding, ng labis na hair growth, at ng acne.

Doc ask k lng po sa inyo kng pwede ako inom ng metformin my pecos po ako.regular nman po regla ko.every month po meron kaya lng masakit ulo ko at puson pg ngkaroon ako.tpos may abdomenal pain po akng nramdamn lagi.ang binigay n gamot ng doctor ay ang purple corn juice po.pero d k po ito ininom pgkat mahal.mx3 capsule at tea lng po ang ininom ko mga 1 month na.pero masakit parin tiyan ko.tumataba dn ako doc.dahil wala npo ako excercise at trabaho.dalaga pa po ako.pls doc help me ano po ba dapat kng inumin para mawala ito.n stressed n po ako d2 lagi po sumasakit.
Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens, Sabal serrulata) This herb has anti estrogenic effects and also has been found to decrease the testosterone levels in the blood. Both effects are very positive for women with PCOS .9 The herb has properties that can block the process of testosterone turning into DHT (dihydrotestosterone, a by-product of testosterone) which in turn lowers male hormones in the body.
Acne: Birth-control pills, anti-androgen drugs and insulin-sensitizing drugs, all mentioned above, can bring the severe acne of PCOS under control by reducing the high levels of male hormones that trigger bad break-outs in PCOS. In addition, your family doctor or dermatologist may recommend additional acne medications to unclog pores, control skin bacteria and soothe inflammation. These may include retinoids, antibiotics, and products to help unclog pores. One warning: Retinoids can cause birth defects and cannot be used if you are already pregnant or are planning to become pregnant.
Pioglitazone (Actos®) and Rosiglitazone (Avandia®) are insulin-sensitizing agents that improve glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. These drugs are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of diabetes. Although they are not approved for treatment of PCOS, they have been shown to be effective for this purpose in many studies.

The diagnostic workup should begin with a thorough history and physical examination. Clinicians should focus on the patient's menstrual history, any fluctuations in the patient's weight and their impact on PCOS symptoms, and cutaneous findings (e.g., terminal hair, acne, alopecia, acanthosis nigricans, skin tags).19 Patients should also be asked about factors related to common comorbidities of PCOS.
And that’s not all. Nurturing your health with smart daily choices also helps protect against heart disease and diabetes, major health risks for women with PCOS. And while there’s little research specifically in PCOS, a healthy diet plus exercise and stress reduction are also proven to help lift anxiety and depression, improve sleep, reduce fatigue and boost energy – additional pluses that can help you feel great.
She's talking about withdrawal symptoms, the nausea/puking and massive diarrhea, lmao. That's just part of withdrawal though, and I'm sure she had access to a toilet? Like, what's wrong with actually going through withdrawal? Maybe I'm old school, but I withdrew cold turkey 9 times in the process of getting clean, and that's the easiest part of recovery. Take loperamide for the diarrhea and deal w/ it. Granted, I did genuinely want to get sober, and I doubt Luna does, but still. Choices, consequences. Don't shoot heroin if you can't handle the diarrhea when you're without it. Pfffft, junkies these days.

Side effects: Since licorice is one of the most widely used herbs there is a great deal of research into the possible side effects as well. It is definitely not recommended for long-term use because extended exposure may cause fluid retention, high blood pressure and potassium depletion. Some minor side effects may include upset stomach, headache, missed periods and fatigue. You should not take licorice if you are pregnant, breast feeding or have high blood pressure.
Hirsutism is a bothersome hyperandrogenic manifestation of PCOS that may require at least six months of treatment before improvement begins. According to a 2015 Cochrane review, the most effective first-line therapy for mild hirsutism is oral contraceptives.32 Spironolactone, 100 mg daily, and flutamide, 250 mg twice daily, are safe for patient use, but the evidence for their effectiveness is minimal.32 Other therapies include eflornithine (Vaniqa), electrolysis, or light-based therapies such as lasers and intense pulsed light. Any of these can be used as monotherapy in mild cases or as adjunctive therapy in more severe cases.33

Second-line therapy, when clomiphene citrate fails to lead to pregnancy, is either exogenous gonadotropins or laparoscopic ovarian surgery. [2, 3] If gonadotropins are used, a low-dose regimen is recommended, [3] and patients must be monitored with ultrasonography and laboratory studies. [2] Note that gonadotropin therapy is expensive and is associated with an increased risk of multiple pregnancy and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. [2]
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent hormonal and metabolic disorder among reproductive aged women worldwide. Women with PCOS have widely varying phenotypes and seek medical care for differing reasons. In addition to concern for menstrual cycle function, ovulation, hirsutism and acne, many PCOS women have abnormal glucose metabolism. While diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance are easily diagnosed, the diagnosis of and concern for insulin resistance as a precursor disorder is underappreciated. Insulin resistance may be the first important marker of metabolic disease in PCOS women at risk for metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease.

Las mujeres con PCOS pueden tomar medicamentos para la fertilidad como Clomid o inyectárselos a fin de inducir la ovulación. Las mujeres también pueden tomar medicamentos para aumentar la sensibilidad a la insulina o esteroides (para reducir el nivel de andrógeno) a fin de inducir la ovulación. Algunos estudios también indican que tomar una dosis baja de aspirina, que ayuda a prevenir la coagulación en el recubrimiento uterino y mejora la circulación, puede mejorar la probabilidad de un embarazo.
It is thought that insulin resistance may be a key factor in PCOS. Insulin helps transport glucose into the body's cells. where it is needed for energy production. When there is resistance to insulin's effect, the body tries to compensate by making even more insulin and releasing it in the blood (hyperinsulinemia). Some believe that too much insulin may cause the ovaries to increase androgen production, which in turn causes the symptoms associated with PCOS.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), also known by the name Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is a hormonal problem that causes women to have a variety of symptoms. It should be noted that most women with the condition have a number of small cysts in the ovaries. However, women may have cysts in the ovaries for a number of reasons, and it is the characteristic constellation of symptoms, rather than the presence of the cysts themselves, that is important in establishing the PCOS diagnosis.
Su médico le hará un examen físico y preguntará sobre su salud, medicamentos y ciclo menstrual. El médico también querrá saber si hay antecedentes familiares del síndrome (su madre, una hermana o tía). En el examen físico, el médico le medirá la presión arterial y determinará su estatura y peso. Su médico también examinará su vellosidad y buscará parches de piel oscura.
Where PCOS is associated with overweight or obesity, successful weight loss is the most effective method of restoring normal ovulation/menstruation, but many women find it very difficult to achieve and sustain significant weight loss. A scientific review in 2013 found similar decreases in weight and body composition and improvements in pregnancy rate, menstrual regularity, ovulation, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, lipids, and quality of life to occur with weight loss independent of diet composition.[73] Still, a low GI diet, in which a significant part of total carbohydrates are obtained from fruit, vegetables, and whole-grain sources, has resulted in greater menstrual regularity than a macronutrient-matched healthy diet.[73]
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